Tourism is the world's largest and
fastest growing industry. In recent years there have been increases in
international tourism for the purpose of experiencing another culture. There is
a wide-spread opinion that the economic impact of tourism is always positive
while the social and environmental impact is always negative. Indeed,
increasing incomes to regions due to tourists are easy to see as well as
numerous host-tourist conflicts and destruction of the environment and local
cultures. However, tourism can have both positive and negative outcomes for
residents in communities when sharing and preserving their culture and nature
could be seen as conflicting goals. (Besculides, Lee, McCormick, 2002:303) In
this paper I will consider impacts of tourism with reference to the Australia. The
area is unique because of its nature and variety of sea activities, e.g.
fishing, boat trips, sailing etc.Today those resources which used to be source
of living for the local community have become very attractive for tourists. It
is a challenge to get most profits of the situation and avoid possible
Often referred to as the national identity,
Australians take sport very seriously. You can't walk into a bar without a
sports event from somewhere in Oz on TV. In winter, Western
Australia, South Australia, and Victoria catch footy fever for Australian Rules Football,
while New South Wales and Queensland traditionally follow rugby. In
summer, cricket is the spectator sport of choice across the nation. Star Aussie
Rules football players and top cricketers enjoy hero status. Tune in to H. G.
Nelson and Roy
Slaven's Sunday afternoon Triple-J radio show This Sporting Life for a taste of
Aussie sport culture, or check out the ridiculously popular Footy Show, on
television's Channel 9.
The uninitiated may have trouble making sense of a
sport where people can "bowl a maiden over of five flippers and a googly,"
but visitors won't be able to avoid the enthusiasm. Two teams of 11 players
face off in a contest that can last anywhere from an afternoon to five days.
Each summer, international cricket overshadows the national competition. Not
just a scrimmage, a "test match" is the most lengthy and serious form
of international cricket. In 1877, Australia's
cricket team headed to England
for its first international test against the mother country, emerging
victorious. The Australians, as a shocked English reporter wrote, had
"taken off with the ashes" of English cricket. Ever since then,
British and Australian Test teams have been in noble contest for "the
Ashes" (the trophy is a small, symbolic urn) with other former British
colonial countries such as India,
Pakistan, and South Africa
joining in the competition. In December and January, international teams arrive
for a full tour, consisting of five test matches, one each in Melbourne,
Sydney, Perth, Adelaide, and Brisbane.
The five-day tests, accompanied by smaller one-day matches, are over by
February, just in time for the country to turn its attention to national
cricket and the Sheffield Shield finals in March.
In Victoria, South Australia, and Western Australia, the Australian Football
League (AFL) teams fill the winter void that the end of the cricket season
leaves. Played on cricket ovals, the game was originally designed to keep
cricket players in shape in the off-season. The AFL grand final, in early
September, is a marvelous spectacle at the home of Australian sport, the MCG.
For more information on footy, see Footy 101, p. 22.
According to legend, rugby was born one glorious day
in 1823 when one inspired (or perhaps frustrated) student in Rugby, England,
picked up a soccer ball and ran it into the goal. Since then, rugby has evolved
(or devolved) into an intricately punishing game with two variants: rugby union
involving 15-man teams, and rugby league with 13-man teams. Despite the
international reputation of the national union team, the Wallabies, rugby union
sometimes carries a muted following. Since they defeated France to win
the World Cup in 1999, though, rugby union has grown in popularity. Matches
such as the Super 12 tournament and Tri-nation series (Australia, South
Africa, and New Zealand) often pack stadiums
and pubs. Part of the Tri-nation series, the Bledisloe Cup (first played in
1931) perpetuates a healthy animosity with Australia's down-under cousin, New
Rugby league attracts a much larger following,
especially in New South Wales and Queensland. The national
league competition culminates in the National Rugby League (NRL) final in
September. The only match that comes close to the intensity or popularity of
the NRL final is the State of Origin series in
June, when Queensland takes on New South Wales. Both
games promise a mix of blood, mud, and plenty of drinking. For more info, check
While the Australian team hasn't entered the World Cup
since 1974, soccer is widely played, and Australia's National Soccer League
has a fierce fanbase. Melbourne
hosts one of tennis' Grand Slam events, the Australian Open, each January.
Grassy tennis courts, bowling greens, and golf courses pepper the cities
coast-to-coast. Most towns also have a horse racing track, and on the first
Tuesday in November, the entire country stops to watch jockeys jockey for the
prestigious Melbourne Cup, where fashionable and outlandish attire sometimes appears
more important than the race. On Boxing Day, even as the Melbourne Cricket Test
gets underway, half of Australia's amateur sailing community fills Sydney
Harbour with billowing white sails to begin the Sydney-to-Hobart yacht race,
the highlight in a full calendar of water sports. Australia is famous for its
surfing, which for some is a competitive sport in addition to a great way to
spend a summer morning.
Tourism has grown rapidly in the late 20th century, and it now
represents one of the most dynamic sectors in the Australian economy,
accounting for 500,000 jobs in the early 1990s. Australia had about 2.8 million
visitors annually in the early 1990s, whose spending exceeded $3.1 billion.
The strong growth in domestic tourism has tapped the expanding range of
attractions in each state and territory—amusement and theme parks, zoos, art
galleries and museums, certain mines and factories, national parks, historic
sites, and wineries. Some of the most popular attractions are Queensland's
spectacular Great Barrier Reef, the Northern Territory's
Park, and the famous beach resorts in the Brisbane,
Cairns, and Sydney regions.
We have shown that the impact of
tourism on local communities can be both positive and negative, whether it
comes to economic, social or environmental effects. All depends on to which
extent tourism is developed in a particular region. Every region has its
bearing capacity, that is to say the limit of the outcoming influence that does
not harm the host community.If we
overcome that limit negative impacts of tourism will follow. We can see it is a
great challenge to make profitable business running tourism in an area without
affecting negatively the local communities. It is possible for tourism industry
to co-operate with other industries and bring benefits to both the tourism
organisations and local businesses.The
first step to achieve it is to understand needs and desires of both the host
community and the tourists.