Recently introduced foreign folk instruments (реферат)
In the late
19th and early 20th century several non-Ukrainian folk instruments began to
gain popularity in Ukraine.
Most of these instruments were introduced from Russia. With the introduction of
mass production they became readily and cheaply available, having superior
acoustic properties when compared to the traditionally handcrafted instruments.
Thus many of these instruments began to replace the more traditional Ukrainian
folk instruments to the extent that many traditional instruments disappeared.
Examples of this are the replacement of the torban and fretted kobza with the
seven-stringed guitar, the small fretted kobza with the mandolin, and later the
instruments however underwent changes to suit Ukrainian tastes in music.
Consequently, the balalaika received a different tuning and six strings rather
than the three it had in Russia.
The domra received four strings and a tuning in fifths rather than three
strings and a tuning in fourths.
times, the development of Ukrainian folk Instruments and the reintroduction of
traditional instruments to replace these foreign instruments has become a major
question. The orchestral four-string kobza tuned in fifths, has been introduced
to replace the four-string domra. The seven-string kobza was designed to
replace the seven-string "Russian" guitar. These efforts however are
being met with a certain amount of opposition.
the bayan was introduced into Eastern Ukraine from Russia
in the 1920's and into Western Ukraine after
the WWII. It is now used prolifically and has replaced many traditional
Ukrainian folk instruments many regions of Ukraine. The accordion was
initially introduced into Russia
in the 1830's from Germany.
It was developed into its modern form by the St. Petersburg instrument maker P. Sterlingov
In Ukraine the
balalaika was previously known as the "balabaika." It was developed
into a modern instrument by salon violinist Vasyl Andreev in the 1880's after
Andreev had seen Neapolitan mandolin orchestras in Italy. His first balalaika was made
in 1883. In
1889, after successful performances in Paris,
the instrument began to gain popularity in Russia
The most famous contemporary balalaika virtuoso is the Ukrainian Pavel
Nechyporenko who hails from Chernihiv. There are no longer any professional
Russian Folk instrument orchestras in Ukraine,
and balalaika courses have either been discontinued or are being phased out in
conservatories in Ukraine.
The four-stringed domra. The domra was also developed by Vasyl
Andreev. In 1895 a
round bodied three-string instrument was discovered i n a stable in Russia.
Although later it was thought to have been a version of the balalaika, it
continued to be known as the domra. Initially given a tuning in fourths that
differed slightly from the tuning of the balalaika. A mandolin-like technique
was incorporated which used a plectrum. In Ukraine a four-string version of
the domra tuned in fifths similar to the mandolin became popular. It gradually
replaced the then popular mandolin in the 1930's. This four-stringed version
was first introduced in 19 20 and became extremely popular. The four-string
domra, although thought of as a Russian folk instrument, is not used in Russia itself
where the three-string version is universally used and taught. This has led to
a perplexing situation. Why play on a Rus sian folk instrument that is not
played in Russia?
With the lack of job opportunities in Ukraine
and in Russia,
many four-string domra players are changing over to the four-string orchestral
kobza in order to continue working in Ukrainian folk instrument orchestras and
first made its appearance in Spain
in the second half of the 15th century and found its way to Russia in the
19th century. The guitars played in Ukraine are similar in construction
and tuning to the Russian guitar where it is thought that they were first
developed. These instruments have seven metal strings and are usually tuned to
an open G tuning. The development of the seven-string guitar has been
accredited to a Czech national - Andriy Sykhra [1773-1850]. The tuning used was
taken from the Ukrainian torban. It is thought that Sykhra may have been a
torbanist. The term "Russian" guitar was applied to this instrument
due to the rise of Russian patriotism after the war of 1812. The Russian
seven-string guitar tuning in recent times has become unpopular, especially
among the youth, and is being replaced by the standard six-string guitar tuning
used in the West.
The Side Drum (Baraban)
The side drum
was used in march and dance music and was introduced into Ukrainian folk music
only in this century.
is often described as a Russian folk instrument that is, now becoming popular
It originated in a district on Russian ethnographic territory in the Urals
appearing in the 1830-40's, and was played by Ukrainians working in factories
and mines in the Ural mountains. Its shape is that of a small guitar having
is thought to have replaced the fretted kobza in Ukraine
and was first developed in Italy
and became very popular in Europe and in Ukraine. There are two types. The Neapolitan,
- with a round back, - and the Portuguese with a flat back. In Ukraine the
mandolin was displaced by the four-string domra.
has become popular in recent times in Western Ukraine,
the most widely used being the clarinet in C. The version used in Ukraine has a
simpler construction lacking many of the metal keys that the contemporary
clarinet has. It was used widely in Western Ukraine, being introduced there
instruments were introduced through contacts with military music. Brass
ensembles were particularly popular in the Kuban
region played by the Kuban Cossacks. Today small brass ensembles have become
very popular in the playing of funeral music and dances.
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