Internal Structure of a Proton and New Method of Receiving of Energy Dr. N.V. Kosinov, V. I. Garbaruk (реферат)

INTRODUCTION

The proton was discovered in the early 20-th. in experiments
with alpha-particles. In experiments on dispersion on protons of electrons and gamma
- radiation the authentic proofs of existence of a certain internal structure
from this particle were received. In 1970, it became possible to receive the
direct proof in experiment in the Stanford centre of the linear accelerator
(SLAC), that the proton really has internal structure [1]. However, the
concrete internal structure of a proton remains unopeneded up. The hypothesis
of quark as fundamental basis of elementary particles, has not resulted in an
establishment of concrete internal structure of a proton. As it is marked in
[1]: "Quark model was offered for an explanation of variety of adrons. It
is nothing telling about an internal structure any of these particles by an
obvious image " Till Now there is no understanding, on what principles the
mechanism of formation of structure of a proton is constructed. On this reason
there is no explanation of its mass, which is equal to 1836,1526675 (39) masses
of electrons. Mass of a proton is determined experimentally. There are no the
theory of mass of a proton and analytical relation for Яalculation of its mass.
>From all heavy particles the proton is a single steady particle. The proton
is a basis of all complex material formations of the Universe. The world is
obliged by existence to a proton, however level of knowledge about it does not
correspond to its role in universe. To puzzle out such Яonundrum of problems,
it is necessary to open concrete internal structure and to create the theory of
its internal structure. The physicists have already come closely to such
problem, when it is necessary to give the answer to a question: ? what concrete
internal structure of particles is, as also what the Nature for them used as a
building material? ¦ There are all reasons to believe, that the theory of
internal structure of a proton will open access to new methods of receiving of
energy. The development of energy of a proton can become the major factor in
the decision of a power problem. This article is devoted to the decision of
this task.

INTERNAL STRUCTURE of a PROTON

In articles [2 -5] the steps in a direction of creation of the
theory of internal structure of elementary particles are undertaken. The
relation reflecting the law of formation of structure of an elementary particle
is received:

(1)

Where: n = 2,3...; me - mass of a electron ; j = 1 for neutral
particles; j = 0 for particles having a charge.

From the formula it is visible, that the law of genesis of
structure of substance has binary character. Binarity is being kept on each
step of structurization of material. Binarity in the laws of genesis of
structure reflects, that the charging conjugate particles participate in
formation of other particles. The formula reflects dynamics of genesis of
structure, according to which a formation of structure of material particles is
taking place.

The relations for energies are described by the following
mathematical formulas [2 - 5]:

(2)

(3)

The formula (2) is applicable for definition of energy of
neutral particles, the formula (3) is applicable for definition of energy of
charged particles. Each of formulas (2) and (3) reflects the certain discrete
series of power levels, at their correspondence to sequence of material
formations in dynamics of genesis of structure. Formulas (2) and (3) show that
the energy participating in formation of particles is divided into two
components. The first component represents total rest energy of material
formations participating in formation of a new particle. So, for neutral
material formations, it is presented as:

(4)

The second component is presented by summands, which determine
size of binding energy:

(5)

The relations (2) and (3) reflect discrete character of internal
energy of elementary particles.

In [5] it is shown, that the internal structure of a proton
represents fractal construction.

Fractal, revealed in structure of elementary particles, reflects
the determinate process of genesis of structure. For fractal of a proton the
alternation of symmetric and asymmetric branches of treelike structure is
characteristic. The discovering of a concrete kind of fractal, reflecting law
of genesis of structure of a proton, allows to receive the quantitative
characteristics of elementary particles by a Яalculated way. In [5] the
quantitative characteristics of fractal structures of elementary particles are
received and the mathematical description of fractal of a proton is found. The
mathematical relation for an elementary cell of fractal of a proton is
presented as:

On the bases of the formula for an elementary cell of fractal
the generalized mathematical relation describing completed fractal designs of
internal structure of elementary particles is received. This mathematical
relation is presented as:

,

Where: k = 0 for nucleuses, k = 1 for atoms, k = -1 for neutral
particles.

From an above mentioned relation, at n = 11, we receive the
formula describing fractal of a proton:

. (6)

The formula for fractal of hydrogen will look like:

.

Considering law of genesis of structure of a proton, it is
visible to see reflection of self-similarity in its internal structure on
various steps of genesis of structure. On each step of formation of structure
of a particle the uniform algorithm of shape formation, resulting in original
topology of a proton is traced. Fractal of a proton is described by the following
topological formula [2]:

The graphic image of the topological formula of a proton
represents treelike fractal design. The process of formation of a proton is
realized as a result of the consecutive acts of energy saturation of vacuum [2,
3, 4]. The internal structure of a proton is formed by system of consecutive
enclosures based on uniform algorithm. On each step of genesis of structure of
a proton the fractal substructure repeats fractal of the previous step of
structurization. The research of fractal of a proton shows that the internal
structure of a proton has brightly expressed quantization and hierarchy
structure. In this hierarchy each subsystem is created on the same image: each
bigger part of structure in accuracy repeats a smaller part of structure. Thus
spatial arrangement at formation of internal structure of a proton is
displaied. According to the formulas (4), (6), (7) there is a hierarchical
discrete series of internal levels of energy of a proton. Proceeding from the
law of preservation of energy, it is visible, that for internal structure of a
proton the hierarchy of characteristic frequencies is taking place. As a
result, spatial arrangement exists alongside with temporary arrangement. For
internal structure of a proton each part of the higher order is constructed by
means of unification of two structures of the lower order.

It results in the special grid of characteristic of internal
frequencies being created by a principle of DOUBLING of the period.

It is demonstrated by the topological formula of a proton (7).
Recursive algorithm is applicable for discribing of dynamics of genesis of
structure of a proton and topological formula of a proton in language of
algorithms [9]. Recurcity is copying small in large and large in small, keeping
a uniform principle of construction of structure of a proton. The formulas of
genesis of structure of elementary particles and topological formula of a
proton have allowed to receive by theoretical calculation a fundamental
constant mp/me, that specifies experimental confirmation of the theory [5, 7,
8, 10].

Besides of, these formulas have allowed to find the mechanism
crucial for steadiness of a proton, that opens new methods of receiving of
energy. It will be shown below.

ENERGY OF VACUUM AND ENERGY
OF A PROTON

In the quantum theory is proved, that the minimal possible
energy of oscillator cannot be less than 0.5hl (6). These halves at a wide
range of waves give very high level of energy of vacuum. It, so-called, zero -
point energy of electromagnetic fluctuations. Experimentally energy of vacuum
is observed in Lemba-Ryzerford effect and in Kazimir effect. Density of energy
of vacuum is defined by relation (6) :

,

where: h -Planck`s constant, a - coefficient, h - frequency .

From here follows, that the energy of vacuum can be very large.
According to R. Feynman and G. Whiller, the energy potential of vacuum is so
huge, that " in vacuum enclosed in volume of an ordinary electrical bulb,
energy such plenty, that it would suffice to boil all oceans on the Earth
".

However, due to high symmetry of vacuum, the direct access to
this energy is very inconvenient. As a result, being found, in essence, among
ocean of energy, the mankind is compelled to use only traditional methods of
receiving of energy based on burning natural energy carriers.

Nevertheless, at infringement of symmetry of vacuum the access
to ocean of energy is possible.

The modern methods of receiving of energy can schematically be
presented as:

C + O2 CO2 + 0,0046 MeV,

235U 0,85 MeV / nucleon + radioactive waste,

D + T 4He + 17,6 MeV .

When analysing these methods of receiving of energy, it is
possible to see, that a final product in circuit of power transformations is
the substance. And, this final substance becomes, as a rule, more dangerous to
biosphere, than initial energy carriar. The world already get used to an idea,
that for receiving of energy is necessary to have an effect on substance and at
a final stage also to receive substance. It concerns energy power based on
burning of natural fuel, both to atomic engineering, and to thermonuclear
synthesis. Thus cost of received energy remains high, and waste are very
dangerous to biosphere. For such methods of receiving of energy the formulation
suits: " substance in the beginning of energy transformations - substance
in the end of energy transformations ". The task is to find new methods of
receiving of energy, free from drawbacks of the traditional scheme. The new
scheme of energy transformations should look as: " Substance in the
beginning of energy transformations - energy in the end ". Then at a final
stage of energy transformations there will be no substance, dangerous to
biosphere. It is possible only in case when there are no reactions of synthesis
in the circuit of energy transformations, and instead of them the reactions
destructurization of substance are realized. It is possible in medium of energy
saturated vacuum, where there is an infringement of its symmetry. As a result,
there is no direct access to energy of vacuum, but the exchange of energy of
vacuum on energy contained in substance is carried out. The transformation of
substance to energy will allow considerably to increase quantity of received
energy and to make process of receiving of energy by ecologically clean. The
new scheme of energy transformations can be realized at presence of a high
level of excitation energy of vacuum and influence of this energy on substance.
For this purpose a proton ideally suitable as "fuel".

In second half of 20-th century the theoretical physics has come
to a conclusion about an opportunity of disintegration of a proton [6,11]. The
disintegration of a proton represents the very tempting phenomenon for the
purpose of receiving of vacuum energy. Let's confirm it by concrete
calculations. In [3,7,8,10] the physical constants hu, tu, lu,, П, concerning
vacuum are found. These constants have allowed to receive mass of a proton by
mathematical calculation [5]. The formulas for mass of a proton, with application
of universal superconstants of vacuum hu, tu, lu,, П, directly follow from
parities(ratio) (1) - (7).

Let's note, that from the above mentioned formulas, major
fundamental physical constant mp/me [5,8,10] directly follows. Component, which
represents binding energy is entering into the formulas of mass of a proton.
This energy determines a degree of steadiness of a particle. We have the
opportunity to calculate its value. The formula for definition of binding
energy of a proton is presented as [5]:

(8)

The value of binding energy has been calculated on this formula,
is equal 107,74 лev (? 108 лeV) and makes about 11,5 % from rest energy of a
proton. Thus the major characteristic of a proton is determined, knowledge of
which is the key moment for realization of a new method of receiving of energy.
If a proton is receiving extra energy, such, that it exceeded binding energy (?
108 MeV), it becomes unsteady and disintegrates on light particles having very
small time of life. It is possible at the certain level of energy saturation of
vacuum in a local zone of space, where there is a proton. The new method of
receiving of energy is based on this principle.

The basic stage of energy transformations in a new method of
receiving of energy can be presented as:

p+ + 108 MeV 938 MeV

Here instead of reaction of synthesis of substance, energy
saturation of a proton is realized, that results in it destructurization. On
Fig.1 the complete scheme of energy transformations in a new method of
receiving of energy is shown.

Fig.1. The scheme of energy transformations in a new method of
receiving of energy.

The calculations show, that the binding energy equal to 107,74
лeV and contains 10 components:

Accordingly, the power influence on a proton should be carried
out by quantums of energy and should be correspond to 10steps. As all
elementary particles, on which the proton disintegrates, are unsteady, such
scheme does not result in occurrence of residual substance at a final stage of
energy transformations [12, 13]. It makes a method by ecologically clean. Other
advantage of a new method is the high unprecedented output energy. As it is
visible from the formulas for mass of a proton and from a relation (8), the
specific energy more than in one a thousand times exceeds opportunities of
atomic power and in dozens of times exceeds opportunities of thermonuclea
synthesis, remaining at that by ecologically clean method. In this method the
influence on nucleuses of atoms of hydrogen is carried out. The influence is
carried out in a local zone of space at energy saturation of vacuum in medium
of electro Яonductivity of a liquid. The method allows to receive thermal and
electrical energy. The calculations show that energy coefficient is equal to K
= 4,8 - 8,6. Consuming material is electrolyt. Consumption of electrolyt is 1
gramme on 2500 KW T hour of energy. When using of a electrolyt on a water basis
the residual substance - oxygen will be formed. For the generator by capacity
of 100 KW the eduction of O2 makes very insignificant quantity equal to 0,25
cub.m per one year.

The stated above approach usen idea of infringement of
steadiness of a proton, can find application for utilization of various waste
of manufacture in an industry and power. The influence on substance with the
purpose of it destructurization can become the universal and effective tool of
ensuring of ecological safety of manufacture and transformation of waste of
manufacture into a thermal energy. It essentially changes a sight for existing
types and classes of energy carriers and will allow to consider even dangerous
waste as potential energy carriers.

REFERENCE

1. л.Jacob, P.Landshoff,
Internal structure of a proton, UFN, vol. 133, pub. 3, 1981.

2. N. Kosinov, Emanation of substance by vacuum and law of
genesis of structure, Physical vacuum and nature, N1, 1999.

3. N. Kosinov, Physical vacuum and gravitation. Physical vacuum
and nature, N4, 2000.

4. N. Kosinov, Wireless transmission of energy, Idea. N2, 1994,
p.g. 221 -227.

5. N. Kosinov, An origin of a proton. Physical vacuum and
nature, N3, 2000.

6. Y. Zeldovich, The theory of vacuum can solve a problem of
Яosmology, UFN, vol.133,pub.3, 1981.

7. N. Kosinov, Five Fundamental Constants of Vacuum, Lying in
the Base of all Phisical Laws, Constants and Formulas, Physical Vacuum and
Nature, ¦4, 2000.

8. N. Kosinov, Z. Kosinova, Connection of Gravitational Constant
G and Planck Constant h, 51st International Astronautical Congress 2-6 Oct.
2000/Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

9. A. Anisimov, Computer
science. Creativity.Recursity, K., Naukova dumka, 1988.

10. N. Kosinov, Five universal physical constants, lying in the
base of all fundamental constants, laws and formulas of physics , The sixth
International conference ? Modern problems of natural sciences ¦, The program
and theses.S.-Petersburg, August, 2000.

11. ю. Sacharov, Infringement of CP-invariancy, C - symmetry and
baryonous asymmetry of the universe, The letters in GETF,vol.5, 1967,
p.g.33-35.

12. N. Kosinov, V. Garbaruk, Vacuum origin of Electron ,
Physical vacuum and nature, N1, 1999.

13. N.Kosinov, V.Garbaruk ,Vacuum origin of Electron and
Positron". Physical Vacuum and Nature, N4, 2000.

Реферат на тему: Internal Structure of a Proton and New Method of Receiving of Energy Dr. N.V. Kosinov, V. I. Garbaruk (реферат)