Cultural imperialism and cultural diplomacy (реферат)
Perhaps, "cultural imperialism” and "cultural diplomacy” are
sufficiently young, but it concerns only word combinations. Mankind
always tries to chose definitions to different phenomena, in particular
in sphere of politics, in such way the words "ideology”, "myth”,
"propaganda” have appeared.
Cultural imperialism and cultural diplomacy can be considered
just as more or less aggressive method of propaganda activity.
The process of clearance of relationship between journalism and
propaganda is as two instruments of cultural diplomacy and cultural
What is the aim of cultural diplomacy and cultural imperialism:
forming of political regimes, decision of some economical problems or something
else? A large use of considering definitions makes doubts that the aim of
spreading ideas can be contain in one word. Most probably it is a complex of
aims. But what politics is more successful? "Whip” politics or "cake” politics?
New epoch, epoch of globalization, epoch of powerful mass media
has opened new opportunities for propaganda. A man is grasped from TV every
day; the material chosen by journalists has turned out in a stream of huge
amount of information. "It is [TV] the crucial source of information about the
outside world”. (Negrine op. Cit., ibid., p. 100). Naturally that if even
journalists have no enough time for interpretation of the information, what
hopes may be for average spectator to interpret this information correctly. "TV
is a "heavily selected interpretation of events” (R. Hoggart "Bad news”.
London, 1976, p.x.). In the stream of the information a spectator managed by
own prejudices and moral brought from without is building from the information
knots a picture of his own world. People received the
opportunity to know so many things without learning anything.
At the sense level a person understands that he is manipulated
(probably because of that spectator’s appreciation of journalists are so low).
From the other side the information containing burning topics of the day,
sharply and easily for understanding given, wakes up in a person so
powerful impulse which it’s very difficult not to be obeyed.
As never before a man has become such unprotected against foreign
influence, the question is what ideology will be more correct key for this or
that country. From the other side despite that a man
has learned to get over large distances for a short time, people have not
became closer one another. It may be called "the theory of unknown
people”. Unknown people are making clothes for us, selling
foods, unknown people are defending us as a Police, unknown people are
teaching our children, building our houses. When we are traveling by bus
or by plane our lives are in the hands of unknown people. Why not to let
these unknown people to take possessions of our minds (through TV and sound
May be supposed that this space being free from critical
interpretation in human consciousness offers the opportunity for enforcing
of culture (in context of cultural imperialism). But aforementioned
statement has reverse side as well. Since the borders between that as supposed
is personal and private and that is not so, have no the same sense as were
before, people have worked out the immunity against information
The opportunity of comparison may have its influence; access to
large amount of information let people to compare thrusting ideas with the
reality. Thus the slogan "Dreamland is good because it is wonderful” is not
working any more.
Before the World War II in world politics only
10 countries played essential part. After the War practically all
countries began to play their parts in the world politics. Economical and
political reasons have come to the situation when the ideology has become
the well developed science. Cultural imperialism as well as
cultural diplomacy have appeared in the result of development of ideology
and propaganda. Differentiation of ideology, foundation of politics-ideological
complexes, access of scientists to practical politics (J. Kennedy, T.
Kissinger) and taking part of scientists in creation of ideological systems as
well as organization of expert centers in this field - all these resulted
in foundation of whole system of measures on foreign policy, particularly in
A needful influence using rude methods of cultural imperialism
can be hardly have an affect, countries at which the cultural imperialism
can be aimed have too probable chance of maneuver. Cultural diplomacy and
cultural imperialism as a part of ideological war became a strategic weapon
using a subtle instruments of influence. Perhaps Chechen War became one of the
failures of cultural imperialism. Here should be mentioned that religious factor
has played an important part. It is one of the reason that confirms
impossibility of rude influence can be applicable.
It may be supposed that a peace after the war in Chechen,
long-drawn-out Israel - Palestine conflict and Desert fox, is in condition of
sufficient fragile balance, that can be ground for conclusion that cultural
imperialism isn’t applicable at all, since it would directed at a country
playing an insignificant part in world politics, and would be identified in
time and met by opposite measures, consequences might be tragic.
On the contrary cultural diplomacy is the war without victims.
To avoid any impact of cultural diplomacy a country can only
in case of the isolation from foreign world is available
(Iraq, North Korea). Since that it is one of the sign of the totalitarian
state, but it’s not excluded that the regime will aim its powerful ideological
machine at its people. It’s all the same for the cultural imperialism but only
within the limits of one state. If one of the purposes of cultural imperialism
in foreign policy would be the spreading of a political regime, so in case of
totalitarian country the aim of propaganda, creation of myths, ideology became
in general the support of a regime. Too much energy must be spent for the
support of information units.
Supposedly that cultural imperialism as well as cultural
diplomacy is aimed by one country or a group of countries at other country.
Sometimes instruments of political influence are aimed at population of the own
state, for example at representatives of a large group of national minority. In
this case the use of aggressive methods of cultural imperialism can not be
acceptable, since in this way a serious national conflict can be provoked and
the chain of ones has flushed within the territory of the former USSR in the
beginning of 90-th years.
Real needs including economical reasons in regular
spreading of the information have occurred. Needs in instrument of selecting of
this information have came. In practice it could be realized together with the
development of technique of printing of books in XV - XVI centuries, when in
Europe the first periodical press appeared. Journalism became a
special type of activity. Propaganda started its development earlier: the
method of influence upon the opponent, social political instrument of classes.
The "relationship between paper and reader was this being changed from the
ideal one of a tutorial and intellectual nature, to one of a market character”.
(A.J. Lee "The Origins of the Popular Press 1855 - 1914, London, 1976, p. 121).
Journalism may be non-connected with politics, but propaganda
can not. As a powerful weapon propaganda always aspires to enlarge
an application of its instrument: the word was added by
a text in writing. (Pamphlets, leaflets of the time of the
Peasant’s War in Germany, Pugachyov’s letters).
Journalism perhaps from the moment of its birth has grasped 3
functions. The first one is the selecting and lighting of the facts of every
day life, the second function is the spreading of appraisals and minds and the
third one is different shows.
The complication of relationship of such definitions as
journalism and propaganda is determined by that the journalism is more special
definition regarding to propaganda. The phenomenon of journalism has many
senses. The periodical press has wider sphere of interests than propaganda. It
includes every day informing about facts and actual events. In this respect
propaganda is a part of periodical presswork. From the other side journalism is
the complexity of technical means of circulation of information messages and
materials of propaganda (newspapers, TV, radio) and at this way journalism is
one of the instruments of propaganda machine. Propaganda has its own
distinguishing features in application of means and weapons of its influence.
In its arsenal there are placards, leaflets, photos, means of mass media.
Journalism addresses only a large auditorium and its activity can be determined
by system of means specially foreseen for circulation of its publications.
Propaganda is an ever-lasting companion of the periodical press; therefore many
journalists are propagandists as well. Even in the media there are many
propaganda materials or materials related to propaganda, are beyond from
periodical press. Newspapers are publishing official governmental messages; TV
canals are carrying out direct translations from meetings. This propaganda can
not be related to own creations of journalists, therefore for calling of the
propaganda, which is professional work of journalists, can be used the term
Periodical press has its an important mobilizing influence upon
people and stimulates social activity as well. It seems that journalism is
called as "literature made in a hurry” and in comparison with classical fiction
literature it (journalism) must have less influence. A fiction literature uses
more sharp, more bright and figurative word. But journalism, probably because
of effect of participation, has the strongest "impulse” influence upon minds,
directions and behavior of people. Perhaps one of the secrets of this influence
is the unique combination of means, which are available for journalism. Reality
of the fact which has been taken from the present day plus magnetic strength of
an idea plus understandable word and representation. Disappearance of one of
these three above-mentioned means destroys a complex of the modern journalism.
For periodical press a conjunction of three components: energy, propaganda and
publicity, - may be compulsory, since it’s the strong factor of influence upon
a social consciousness.
Propaganda is closely bound with a science ideology. The
ideology partly is the method of thinking which taken from without as well as
propaganda serves for ideology can not contain such idealism definitions as
truth, objectivity, impartiality. According to its character propaganda is
tendentious but not objective.
Soviet theoretic scientists have been tried to prove Scientific
features of propaganda through the term " the true of an idea or a mind”
recognizing by that the right of elite, making up socials myths and ideology,
to operate with human consciousness.
Though propaganda always brings to a man a moral and directions
ab extra. The question is at what degree a man can be operated and how many
different ideologies are aimed at a man, has a person the opportunity of a
choice in that - what illusion can be used?
It should be mentioned that mass media at the
definite point must support political power as well as state structure.
"So long as newspapers remain cure of political authority, they are beyond
criticism; once they challenge that authority, they suffer the full force of
its reaction” (R. Negrine "Politics and the Mass Media in Britain”. London.
1994. P. 47 - 48).
Is a hamburger the part of national politics? Who is more
popular: Uncle Sam or Mickey Mouse? Can Michael Jackson, for example, to
inculcate a love to American culture? These questions could be analyzed through
the theory of creation of myths.
It’ s necessary to mention that creation of myths as well as
ideology and propaganda comes sufficiently closely to determination of cultural
diplomacy. If the following interpretation of creation of myths would
available: as the process of constructing of the image system with the subject
presented as essential for a person social reality, in this case the difference
with the subject of cultural diplomacy is not so large. In case of making the
question more simply and to determine the aim of a myth is to provide the
opportunity of orientation, the difference with the purposes of cultural
diplomacy becomes less. The problem is as usual since in context of political
science (Ortega, Gasset) myth is bound closely with political elite which is
working out political myths spreading upon all around. In myth there is not
limits, but cultural diplomacy is aimed at determined real subject. In this
case myths making up by cultural diplomacy are concerning the creation of myths
as a part is related to whole object.
Returning to aforementioned it may be concluded that a numerous
industry of amusements or "pop industry” can not bring all load of cultural
diplomacy. Positive impressions of culture of a state must be formed in
development. The word " diplomacy” supposes not impulses but a process of
thinking. The impulses are corresponding to mass industry and love for popular
music is going away so quickly as a feeling of satiety after eating a
Besides that since cultural diplomacy is leaning for the support
of the elite and the influence must be extended to the most intelligent and
educated population therefore the instruments must be delicate. For example the
song of Elton John "Yellow Brick Road” never can inculcate the love to England
but if the sound track would be provided by representation of the Big Ben,
House of Parlament and other great creations of British architecture, an
excellent result might be achieved.
Thus for the cultural diplomacy it would be more reasonable to
sell the TV picture "Variety Fair” with damage than to earn much on
a pop-star concert.
It can be supposed that if the pop-industry is always
aimed at earning money, cultural diplomacy has to work with damage for
itself and able to make money only in indirect way. In general the distinguishing
feature of pop-industry is internationalism, for example, the Disneyland is
available not only in the USA but the Freedom Stature can be seen only in
the United States of America. Instruments of cultural diplomacy as well
as cultural imperialism must be unique.
Why the rude methods of cultural imperialism have not been
refused at all? Probably in this period these are more operative. In one of
Eric Berne’s book the following example was described: when grasshoppers were
offered to two groups of people and the first group was made to eat the
insects up and the other group was just offered to test them.
In result those people who were made to eat the insects, in
general, called the taste qualities of grasshoppers as good. The other
group which just tested of its own free will said negatively about its tastes.
Eric Berne explained this case by one of the quality of the
human psychic: when something is imposed to a person our mind makes us to love
it. In any case for a some time. The other reaction when this influence is
finishing. In the time of "the cold war” many Western radio programs can be
heard in the USSR, such as "The Voice of America”, "Radio Liberty”. After the
disintegration of the USSR very tendentious "The Voice of America”
became non-interesting and lost its audience.
By the way it did not enlarge the sympathy to the USA. It may be
too simple illustration.
For example can be used a powerful agitation USSR’s
influence upon the former members of East system and what it resulted in
afterwards. All examples have one common feature: an action always turns by
opposite action. Even an action of political pressure such as Soviet tanks in
Czechoslovakia, Afghanistan and Chechen, American B 52 over Vietnam and rackets
Patriot over Baghdad. Regardless of that how many years or days mankind has
come without wars, the methods of rude influence will be continued in future
The question of effectiveness of these measures is opened.
In the time of running of Napoleon the newspapers of France
started to describe this event beginning from the titles such as " the
Blood-thirsty Tyrant Got away from a Cage” and this events were finished in
articles as "The Emperor is taking his throne”. This particularity
of journalism has been available till present time.
However despite that which methods have been
applied: mild or heavy, cultural politics must be understood by them for
whom it has been carried on. Therefore it’s hardly to say about cultural
imperialism, for example, provided by CNN in respect of Russia or China, or
Japan. There an English speech can not been understood. In general, a large
ethnic groups in respect of their language are very conservative, feeling
itself in its consciousness as a part of a huge language group. In this connection
one American saying is very interesting: a person who speaks one language
is a citizen, a person streaking two languages is an immigrant, three languages
is a vagrant. When it’s known before that the words won’t be understood a
statement can be impressed by gestures (Khrushchov’s shoe in the session of UN)
or by understandable images (Iraq tanks in Kuwait).
If the military conflicts would be left , since
state and commence electronic mass media must lead determined
policy, because on the contrary (TV is a "heavily selected interpretation of
events” (R. Hoggart "Bad news”. London, 1976, p.x.)), and cultural imperialism
is becoming more and more active. In case of considering a journalism as an
important transmitter of state propaganda or ideology, in the most powerful and
developed countries the chain: government - journalist - audience won’t be full
because of principle of pluralism, equality of political factors and
institutions. Besides that since the competition fights for audience the modern
mass media lost their opportunity for strategic planning. For instance
even the USA has worked at the image of its country shown the interrogation of
the USA President. For the politics of the USA this fact is not positive. But
the modern regulation of mass media played here their part. Perhaps, the
commerce protects people from any kinds of imperialism. "International bodies
and international competitive pressures are having an impact on the development
of national structures of Broadcasting” (Negrine. Op.cit. p. 210).
As a summary of this work several general moments can be
mentioned. At present time an opportunity of the manipulation with human
consciousness, is especially real as never before since a spectator (listener)
receives a huge amount of information which can not grasp it.
From the other side an opportunity of influence became weaker
because of the increasing opportunity for comparison, the information became
more assessable and the one of the particular feature of foreign policy became
taking part of almost all countries of the world. Therefore a chance of the
influence upon the more non-developed countries using the powerful methods of
the cultural imperialism are minimized.
The opportunity of defend of oneself from the power influence
has increased proportionally to increasing of the influence of the world
community where all countries take essential part.
In this work the statements interpreting the conjunction
between journalism and propaganda (weapon of any foreign and inside
influence). However at present time journalists are being more interested
in sensations, show and dynamics of programs. Therefore means of mass media
which without doubt multi - level structures can exist for means received
from advertise sale: thus they are less interested in social orders. In
this situation commerce can protect an audience from
ideological influence. Though " for some observers the globalization of
journalism carries with it the threat of cultural imperialism - the
dissemination across the planet of a journalism dominated largely by North
American (read CNN) values, agendas, and ideological assumptions”. (Brian
McNair "News and Journalism in the UK”. London, 1994, p. 188.
Cultural diplomacy in contradistinction to pressure influence of
cultural imperialism, probably must influence upon elite classes negatively.
Since the educated people grasp rude propaganda methods at once and in many
cases able to separate information from ideology and infotainment as well. Thus
rude methods of industry will not work here.
For easier understanding it can be supposed that well done
programm on Discovery Canal about, for example, American Air Forces of the
World War II had more influence effect than the a direct translation of CNN
about bombardment of Baghdad.
In conclusion it ‘s desirable to impress a hope that
the rude methods has been finished at least in respect of actual participants
of the world community.
A.J. Lee (1976) "The Origins of Popular Press. 1855 - 1914”, London, p. 121
R. Negrine (1994) "Politics and the Mass Media in Britain”,
London, p. 47 - 48
R. Hoggart "Bad News”, (1976), London, p.x.
Brian McNair (1994) "News and Journalism in the UK”, London, p.
A. Briggs, (1979) "Governing the BBC”, London, p. 211
R. Friedman (1992) "American Law”, Moscow
Реферат на тему: Cultural imperialism and cultural diplomacy (реферат)