National anthem, flag and the coat-of-arms………..... …………………3
Creation of the
Commonwealth of Australia……………………………5
Australia’s ties with Great Britain and the USA..………………………6
Information about Australia
Australia is situated in
the southwest of the Pacific Ocean. The area
of this country is 7,7 million square kilometers. The population of the country
is about 20 million people. The capital is Canberra. The population of Canberra is about 300 thousand people.
Official language is English.Australia is
the largest island in the world and it is the smallest continent.
Commonwealth of Australia is a self-governing federal state. It has got 6
states: New South Wales, Victoria,
and 2 internal territories.
National Anthem, Flag and the Coat-of-Arms
national flag consists of 5 white stars of the Southern Cross and the white
Commonwealth star(the large seven
pointed star) on a blue background with a Union Jack in canton. The Southern
Cross is the southern Crux, whose four chief stars are in the form of cross.
The flag of Australia is
the only one to fly over a whole continent. The small Union Jack represents the
historical link with Britain, and the large seven-pointed star represents the
six states and the Territories, and the small stars form the Southern Cross – a
prominent feature of the southern hemisphere night sky.
A distinctive Australia flora and fauna is reflected in the
country’s coat-of-arms by the symbols of Australia’s endemic animals;
kangaroo and emu and twig of wattle (a kind of acacia).
adopted green and gold as its national colours in 1984.
national anthem was adopted in the 1970ties. It is used on the all-official and
supposed that Australia’s
native inhabitants, the Aborigines, arrived in Australia at least 40,000 years
ago. The first Europeans visited the shores of Australia in 1606. The Spanish ship
of Luis Vaes de Torres sailed through the strait, which now bears his name and
separates Australia and Papua New Guinea.
In the same year the Dutch ship Duyfken (Little Dove) sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria. Among later voyagers is Dirk Hartog
(1616), who left an inscribed pewter plate (Australia’s
most famous early European relic, now in Amsterdam)
in Western Australia.
Tasman, Dutch navigator, visited Tasmania,
which he named Van Diemen’s Land, in 1642.
first Englishman to visit the continent was a buccaneer, William Dampier, who
landed near King Sound on the northwest coast in 1699.
second wave of immigration began in 1770, when Captain James Cook, of the
British Navy, sighted the east coast of the continent.
Cook had been sent to Tahiti to make
astronomical observations and when his mission was completed, he sailed south
in Endeavour, circumnavigated New
Zealand and headed due west. On April 20,
1770, Cook sighted land near Cape Everard, in the southeast corner of Australia.He turned north, charting the coastline as he
went and, 9 days later, landed at Botany Bay,
which he named for the variety of botanic specimen found there. He raised the
British flag and claimed New South
Wales as a British Colony.
It is probably
due to its geographical position that Australia was the last continent to
be inhabited by the white man. It was just a little over 390 years that the
Australian continent was discovered.
The first landing
by Europeans took place in 1606. More than a century and a half later an
expedition headed by the British explorer James Cook added the land to the
possessions of the British crown.
Until the name "Australia” (meaning "South
Land”) became generally accepted for the
continent, it had been referred to as New Holland, New South Wales, or Botany Bay. During the War of Independence (1776) the
former British colonies in America
declared themselves independent.Britain tried
to make up for this loss by the seizure of new territories. Besides, the
convicts could no longer be transported to the American colonies (which had
served this purpose for overhundred
years) and British jails were more than badly overcrowded.
contingent of the convicts and their guards landed where Sydney stands today, on January 26, 1788. It
was the so-called"First Fleet” and
these people were called "first fleeters” Now, Australia Day, and January 26,
commemorates the landing. Gradually more and more people arrived (they were
convicts as well as free settlers) and a number of settlements were founded
along the southern and eastern coasts. For the first few years, the colonists
were almost entirely dependent on food supplies from overseas but gradually the
land around the settlements was brought under cultivation. Soils were generally
poor and crop yields low, but better agricultural land was soon found near Parramatta, to the west.
Exploratory voyages were also made along the east coast. The boldest was that
of Captain Matthew Flinders who, in 1802-1803 circumnavigated the continent.
Australia Day is
a very important holiday for the Australians, another equally important holiday
is called Anzac Day.
of The Commonwealth of Australia
In 1901 the
separate colonies in Australia
merged together and became the States of the Commonwealth of Australia, which
acquired the status of dominion of Great Britain.The Commonwealth of Australia – a
federation of the 6 former colonies as states – was declared to come into being
on January 1, 1901.The first Governor –
General, the Earl of Hopetoun, convened the first Parliament of the
Commonwealth of Australia on April 29, 1901. Duke of Cornwall and York opened
it in Melbourne on May 9, son of King Edward VII. Sir Edmund Barton was the
first Prime Minister.
provided for Federal Parliament to sit in Melbourne
until a federal capital territory was selected and established. The present Australian Capital Territory was ceded from New South Wales to become federal territory in 1911, and
the future capital was named Canberra
in 1913. The first Federal Parliament to meet in Canberra was opened by the Duke of York,
later King George VI, on May 9, 1927.
Though Australia now
is an independent state, according to the Constitution the head of the state is
the Monarch of Great Britain, represented by the Governor-General. His duties
include assenting to bills, opening, proroguing and dissolving Parliament and
commissioning the Prime Minister to form a government. Governor-General’s
residence Jarralumla is in Canberra.
of Australia is composed of 6 states and 2 territories: the State of New South
Wales with its capital in Sydney, the State of Victoria with its capital in
Melbourne, the State of Queenland with its capital in Brisbane, the Sate of
Western Australia with its capital in Perth, the State of Tasmania with its
capital in Hobart, Australian Capital Territory with its Federal Capital in
Canberra, and Northern Territory with its capital in Darwin.
New Crown Colonies
Great Britain was on the verge
of loosing 13 rebellious American Colonies in 1770. At that time Captain James
Cook who led a scientific voyager planted the British ensign on a continent
that would soon provide a vast new colony: Australia.
The will to
establish new crown colonies was insistent even before the old ones mere lost.
The Parliament debated the site as early as 1779. Only 18 years after Captain
James Cook had landed in Botany Bay, Captain
Arthur Philip arrived in Sydney Cove to begin the first settlement.
In many ways, America and Australia have had corresponding
histories of exploration, colonization, immigration, and growth. Both began
with settlements on the fringes of huge continents, gradually pushing inward to
cultivate a wilderness interior. And both developed a frontier ethos of
As the convicts
earned their freedom, they went into the outback and staked claims on land.
These men, known as Squatters, raised sheep or cattle, depending on the type of
land they found for themselves.
however reverted to their criminal ways and became outlaws, raiding the towns
and stealing from the squatters. The early part of Australian history is filled
with the tales of the settlers. These bushrangers often became folk-heroes in
the tradition of Robin Hood and Dick Turpin in England,
and Jesse James in the United
States.Many poems and songs were written about them and at one time it was a
criminal offence to sing or recite these ballads, which glorified crime.
Nonetheless, every Australian today knows the stories of the famous
bushrangers. These ballads and songs started the tradition of Australian "yarn”
and its heroes, Dad’s Dave among them.
The hard rough
life in the outback was no place for women. The Squatters searched the towns for
wives to take to their stations. It wasn’t very pleasant prospect for a new
bride, but some girls were lucky enough to undertake the adventure.The image of a typical Australian was a tall,
thin and blond man who was called a "Cornstalk”, sometimes wearing a cabbage
celebrated their bicentennial beginning Jan. 26, 1988 and continuing all next
year. On that date in 1788, 11 ships arrived from Britain,
and 1.030 settlers, including 776 convicts, began their new life in waterfront
section of Sydney
called "the Rocks”.
Australia’s Ties With Great Britain And The USA
Initially, Britain and the Commonwealth countries were the
central elements of Australia’s
foreign policy and activity.Later,
closer relations were also developed with the USA, partly because of the vital
role it played in the Pacific during and after World War II.
Australia can seem quite
British at times and somewhat American at others. Political, legal, and
educational institutions derive from Britain. Each state capital is
named after a colonial politician (Perth,
Brisbane, Sydney, Hobart, Melbourne) or British royal figure (Adelaide). Dry and witheringly hot towns bear
names from England’s
green and pleasant land. The representative of the England queen is the formal head of
the governmental structure. Only since 1984 has required that a civil servant
be an Australian – previously it was sufficient to be British.
influence comes in culture, technology, defense arrangements, and business.
Books from USA
have made a major advance in Australian intellectual circles since the 1960s.
American ideas of management and problem solving are becoming more and more
Australian dollar was introduced in 1966.
In the past some
Australians often felt that Australian culture, products, accents, lifestyles
compared unfavorably with Britain
and the USA.
This attitude has changed. A strong sense of distinct Australian identity has
grown with the growing recognition in the world of Australian films, literature