I’m a cinema goer. And also I like watching films on TV or
video. But I think, that watching a good film is the best relaxation. It is
thought-provoking and entertaining. Now a growing number of people prefer
watching films on TV to attending cinemas. There are wonderful comedies, love
stories, science fiction, horror films, detective stories, and historical films
on. There’s a variety of films available today. It is difficult to live without
cinema. One fact is clear for everyone: cinema makes our life better. Cinema
helps us to forget different problems. When people watch films, they have a
rest. Some films take people into another world. I think it is a pure world,
where usual problems do not even exist. Cinema is a great power, it helps us to
understand our complex well. Cinema can leave nobody indifferent. It is so
powerful that it provokes complex feelings. We meet a lot of people. Everyone
has his own opinion about something and like most of us I have my own opinion
too, for example, about cinema. Cinema is a necessary and important part of my
life. It is my essence, my mode of life and my happiness. Cinema helps me to
cope with difficulties and with incorrigible problems. So that’s why I have
chosen the topic ‘Cinema’.
The world of American cinema is so far-reaching a topic that it
deserves, and often receives, volumes of its own. Hollywood (in Los Angeles,
California), of course, immediately comes to mind, as do the many great
directors, actors and actresses it continues to attract and produce. But then,
one also thinks of the many independent studios throughout the country, the
educational and documentary series and films, the socially-relevant tradition
in cinema, and the film departments of universities, such as the University of
Southern California (USC), the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA)
or New York University.
For over 50 years, American films have continued to grow in
popularity throughout the world. Television has only increased this popularity.
The great blockbusters of film entertainment that stretch from
"Gone with the Wind" to "Star Wars" receive the most
attention. A look at the prizes awarded at the leading international film
festivals will also demonstrate that as an art form, the American film continues
to enjoy-considerable prestige. Even when the theme is serious or, as they say,
"meaningful", American films remain "popular". In the past
decade, films which treated the danger of nuclear power and weapons,
alcoholism, divorce, inner-city blight, .the effects of slavery, the plight of
Native Americans, poverty and immigration have all received awards and
international recognition. And, at the same time, they have done well at the
Movies (films), including those on video-cassettes, remain the
most popular art form in the USA. A book with 20,000 readers is considered to
be a best-seller. A hit play may be seen by a few thousand theatergoers. By
contrast, about a billion movie tickets are sold at movie houses across the USA
There are three main varieties of movie theaters in the USA: 1)
the "first-run" movie houses, which show new films; 2) "art
theaters", which specialize in showing foreign films and revivals; 3)
"neighborhood theaters", which run films — sometimes two at a time —
after the "first-run" houses.
New York is a movie theater capital of the country. Many of the
city's famous large movie theaters, once giving Times Square so much of its
glitter, have been torn down or converted (in some cases into smaller
theaters), and a new generation of modem theaters has appeared to the north and
east of the area. Most of them offer continuous performances from around noon
till midnight. Less crowded and less expensive are the so-called
"neighborhood theaters", which show films several weeks or months
after the "first-run" theaters. There are several theaters that
specialize in revivals of famous old films and others that show only modernist,
avant-garde films. Still others, especially those along 42nd Street, between
the Avenue of Americas and Eighth Avenue, run movies about sex and violence.
Foreign films, especially those of British, French, Italian and Swedish origin,
are often seen in New York, and several movie theaters specialize in the
showing of foreign-language films for the various ethnic groups in the city.
The earliest history of film.
The illusion of movement was first noted in the early 19th
century. In 1824 the English physician Peter Mark Roget published an article
‘the persistence of vision with regard to moving objects’. Many inventors put
his theory to the test with pictures posted on coins that were flipped by the
thumb, and with rotating disks of drawings. A particular favorite was the
zoetrope, slotted revolving drum through which could be seen clowns and animals
that seemed to leap. They were hand drawn on strips of paper fitted inside the
drum. Other similar devices were the hemitrope, the phasmatrope, the
phenakistoscope, and the praxinoscope. It is not possible to give any one
person credit for having invented the motion picture. In the 1880s the
Frenchman Etienne Jules Marey developed the rotating shutter with a slot to
admit light, and George Eastman, of New York, developed flexible film. In 1888
Thomas Edison, of New Jersey, his phonograph for recording and playing sound on
wax cylinders. He tried to combine sound with motion pictures. Edison’s
assistant, William Dickson, worked on the idea, and in 1889, he both appeared
and spoke in a film. Edison did not turn his attention to the projected motion
picture at first. The results were still not good enough, and Edison did not
think that films would not have large appeal. Instead he produced and patented
the kinetoscope, which ran a continuous loop of film about 15 meters (50 feet) long. Only one
person could view it at a time. By 1894, hand-cranked kinetoscope appeared all
over the United States and Europe. Edison demonstrated a projecting
kinetoscope. The cinematograph based on Edison’s kinetoscope was invented by
two Frenchmen, Louis and Auguste Lumiere. This machine consisted of a portable
camera and a projector. In December 1895, The Lumiere brothers organized a
program of short motion pictures at a Parisian cafe.
The earliest movie theatres.
Films were first thought of as experiment or toys. They were
shown in scientific laboratories and in the drawing rooms of private home. When
their commercial potential was realized they began to be screened in public to
a paying audience. The first films to be shown publicly were short, filmed news
items and travelogues. These were screened alongside live variety acts form
theatre shows, called vaudeville in United States. Within a few years
fairground tents that slowed nothing but programs of films were common sights.
In United States stores were converted onto movie theatre, which were known as ‘storefront
theatre’. People would pay a nickel to see about an hour’s worth of film, so
the theatre came to be known as ‘nickelodeons’. Early film audiences needed
patience. There were many technical problems. Projectors were likely to breath
down and every projectionist kept slides to reassure the audience: ‘The
performance will resume shortly.’ Many projectors caused flickering on the
screen, earning films the nickname of ‘the flicks’.
The growth of the film industry.
From the start the film industry was eager to make and show
films that people would want to see. The most popular films were those that
told stories- narrative fiction films. Film making began to realize that by
using different camera angels, locations, lighting and special effects, film could
tell a story in the way that live theatre couldn’t.
The great Train Robbery, made in 1903 by Edwin S. Porter, was
the first American narrative fiction film. It included the basic ingredients of
the Western: a hold-up, a chase, and a gunfight. It used a great variety of
shots by showing the action at different distances from the camera- long shots
of action in the distance, but also medium shots of the actors shown
full-length, and chase-ups of the face and shoulders of a gunman shooting
directly at the audience.
Before World War I American film industry had logged behind the
film industries of Europe particularly those of France and Italy. But during
the war, film making almost stopped in Europe, partly because a chemical used
in celluloid was needed for making gunpowder. The American film industry
thrived during the war because there was money for making films; and also
because of popular the genius of D. W. Griffith. In 1915 Griffith made The
Birth Of Nation, a film about the American Civil War and in 1916 he made
Intolerance. These three hour’s films were American’s answer to the spectacular
Italian films such as Quo Vadis that had earlier astonished the world. For
Intolerance Griffith had built a set of an ancient Babylonian city, which was
over a mile long, and he photograph it from a balloon. Griffith was a genius,
not just because he could show huge and thrilling scenes on the screen, but
because he was aware of the artistic possibilities of film.
The actors in the old-sealers had mostly been unknown and their
performances very poor. Because the films were silent, actors made up for lack
of speech by frantic and unnatural gestures and movements. A new and better
style of acting was adopted by a young American actress called Marry Pickford
who showed that a simple natural style was more effective on the screen than
dramatic arm-waving and chest-thumping. Her fame spread across the Atlantic. In
1918, she signed a contract for more than a million dollars. The stars system
About the same time, some of the slapstick comedians developed
unique comedy styles, and also became world-famous stars. Charlie Chaplin, the
little man with the derby hat, cane, and boggy pants, became the most famous
(he, too, sealed a million-dollar contract). But others such as Buster Heaton,
Harold Lloyd, and Harry Langdon were also widely acclaimed. They were great
artists whose work is still popular today. By 1920 the cinema had became the
most popular form of leisure activity outside the home.
Film studios such as Metro-Goldwin Meyer, Paramount, Warner’s,
20th Century Fox, and United Artists developed a system for producing films on
the same principle that Henry Ford used for his cars- the assembly like
Hollywood, on the west coast of the United States, became the center of the
film industry. Its climate, light and physical surroundings were suited to the
film industry, which shot much material out of doors. Film making thrived. In
succeeding years, many great films were made in Hollywood, beginning with the
silent films, followed, in the mid-twenties, by the first sound pictures.
The first animated cartoon drawn in the United States especially
for film was done in 1906 by J. Stuart Blackton. The first full-length animated
feature film was Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs made in 1937.
The stars of the films being produced in Hollywood became known
throughout the world. Among them were famous Cagney, Clark Gable, Marlene
Dietrich, who had first appeared in films in Germany, the Swedish Greta Garbo
and the young Shirley Temple. Some of the most famous stars were Mickey Mouse
and characters from Walt Disney’s cartoon. Leading film makers included John
Ford, Howard Hawks, Frank Capra and George Cukor.
During World War II some of the best Americans directors in the
US were recruited by the War Department, because films were needed to help
raise the morale of servicemen. Among the best films of this war period were
Frank Capra’s ''Why We Fight'' series (1942-45). Walt Disney’s animated films;
and documentaries about important battlers directed by Garson Kanin, John
Huston, Billy Wilder. Orson Welles’s masterpiece ''Citizen Kane'' (1940) was
the story of a newspaper tycoon. After the war high-quality films continued to
pour out of the United States. They included Charlie Chaplin’s ''Limelight''
(1952), the fine Western Shane (1956), a drama of the New York docks called On
The Waterfront (1954) and many high-spirited musicals of which An American In
Paris (1951) was outstanding. Alfred Hitchcock made his best films during this
period. ''Psycho'' with its famous murder-in-the-shower scene was probably the
most successful. Despite these successes the great studios began to get into
financial difficulties because of declining audiences.
However, the late 1960s saw a turning point in the American film
industry with the release of a number of films appealing to the youth market,
which drew enormous audiences. The most famous of these were Arthur Penn’s
''Bonnie and Clyde'' (1967) and Dennis Hopper’s ''Easy Rider'' (1969).
Realising that they could no longer rely on their traditional family audiences,
film makers increasingly concentrated on films for the so-called ‘teenage
market’, science fiction and fantasy ‘blockbusters’ with computer enhanced
special effects Dolby sound such as George Lucas’s ''Star Wars'' (1977) and
Steven Spielberg’s ''Raiders Of The Lost Ark'' (1981) became very popular.
Today Americans still continue the custom of eating popcorn at
the movies. Americans use 500,000 pounds of popcorn every year. All corn
does not pop. A seed or kernel of corn must have 14 percent water in it to pop.
Other kinds of pop have less water and do not pop. When you put a kernel of
corn on a fire, the water inside makes the corn explode. This makes a ‘pop’
noise. That is why we called it popcorn. The American Indians popped corn a
long time ago. The Indians knew there were three kinds of corn. There was sweet
corn for eating, corn for animals, and corn for popping. The Indians introduced
corn to the first settlers, or Pilgrims, when they come to America in 1620. One
year after they came, the Pilgrims had a Thanksgiving dinner. They invited the
Indians. The Indians brought food with them. One Indian brought popcorn. Since
that time Americans continued to pop corn at home. But in 1945 there was a new
machine that changed the history of popcorn. This electric machine popped corn
outside the home. Soon movie theatres started to sell popcorn to make more
money. Popcorn at the movies became more and more popular. Many people like to
put salt and melted butter on their popcorn. Some people eat it without salt or
butter. Either way - Americans love their popcorn!
The Oscars are awarded every year by the American Academy of
Motion Picture Arts and Science. These statuettes are awarded to actors, film
directors, screenwriters and so on for outstanding contributions to the film
industry. The Oscars were first awarded in 1927. The first winners were chosen
by five judges. Nowadays all of the members of the Academy vote. The ceremony is
attended by most Hollywood stars, although some famous stars, such as Woody
Allen, refuse to go, even if they win an award. The oldest winner of an Oscar
was 80-year- old Jessica Tandy for her performance in the film "Driving Miss
Daisy” in 1990. The youngest was Shirley Temple when she was only five years
old. The statuette is of soldier standing on a reel of film. Nobody is really
sure why it is called an Oscar, although some people say that it is because
when the first statuette was made, a secretary said, "It reminds me of Uncle
When people think about of Hollywood, they probably think of
film stars like Marilyn Monroe, Gary Grant and James Dean. Hollywood is the
center of the international movie industry and American movies are distributed
all over the world. They are made in English but often dubbed into other
languages. In some countries 90 percent of the movies that people see are US
production. Sometimes, a film is not very popular with Americans, but people in
other countries like it. The first films were made in Hollywood in 1911.
Between 1930-1945, the five largest Hollywood’s studios produced most of the
movies and owned most of the movie theatres in the United States. Making films
is expensive. On the average, it costs 36 million dollars to produce a movie.
Some of this goes to pay the salary of well-known movie stars and large sums
can be spent on special effects like computer-generated imagery (CGI).
Marketing the movie to the public may cost another 17 million dollars or more.
To cover these costs film companies receive money for movie theatre tickets and
the sale or rental of videos. They also sell CDs of the soundtrack and toys,
books, or clothes associated with the movie. Indeed, there was a time when
Hollywood was the most famous place in the USA, if not the world.
The Hollywood story begins at the end of the last century.
man called Harvey Wilcox bought a large ranch in a district north-west of Los
Angeles in California. His wife called the land ‘Hollywood’.
1902-04. The first cinemas (‘nickelodeons’) opened in the USA.
1911. Two brothers from New Jersey built Hollywood’s first film
1912. Film-makers from the east coast of the USA came to
California, first in small number and then in thousands.
1912. The Hollywood industry was born.
There were several reasons why film makers went to Hollywood.
Firstly, there was a lot of space, secondly, California’s warm sunny weather
was ideal for making films outside. Thirdly, there was a variety of locations
for filming: ocean, mountains, deserts, villages, woodland and rivers.
By 1939 the great dream factory studios made nearly 500 movies a
year, drew American audience of 50 million a week and earned over 700 million
dollars at the box office-all with the help of 30,000 employees who dealt with
everything from processing film to fan mail.
In the 1950s and 60s Hollywood became more international. Famous
stars like Maurice Chevalier from France, Marlene Dietrich from Germany and
Sofia Loren from Italy came to Hollywood. Even today many international stars
like Gerard Depardier and Arnold Schwarzeneger make films in Hollywood.
A big film studio, like MGM or Warner Brothers, brought to life
a lot of film stars. They could make or break a star.
The Hollywood film studio produced different types. There were
the silent Charlie Chaplin comedies of the 20s, gangster films, Frankenstein
horror films and Greta Garbo romantic melodramas of the 30s, the musicals of
the 40s and 50s, the westerns (cowboy films) of the 50s, the historical epics
of the 60s, the science fiction films of the 70s and the Steven Spielberg
action films and violent horror films of the 80s. Who knows what the next
century will be famous for?
Most visitors to Los Angeles, California want to go and see
Beverly Hills. This is where you find the homes of the movie stars. But Beverly
Hills isn’t Los Angeles. It’s a small city next to Los Angeles. All kinds of
celebrities live in Beverly Hills. These celebrities may be movie stars,
television stars, sport stars, or other people in the news. Tourists can buy
special maps for the homes of the stars. These homes are very beautiful. They
usually have swimming pools and tennis courts. But sometimes you cannot see
very much. The homes have high walls or trees around them. Beverly Hills is
also famous for Rodeo Drive. This is one of the most expensive shopping streets
in the United States. Rodeo Drive started to be an elegant street in the 1960s.
Many famous stores are opened on the street. People liked all the new styles
and fashions they could buy. Today you can find the most expensive and unusual
clothing, jewelry and furniture in the world on Rodeo Drive. Rodeo Drive is a
very special street. When you want to park your car in public parking, an
attendant will come and park your car for you. Beverly Hills is really a small
city. Only About 35,000 people live there. But during the day more than 200,000
people come to Beverly Hills to work or to shop!
The major film genres.
The major film genres developed in the United States are the
Comedy. Charles Spencer Chaplin became the most widely
recognized comedy figure in the world. He emphasized the development of
character and plot structure, in contrast to the simple reliance on gags and
gimmicks that characterized the work of other comedy producers of the day.
Westerns. The Western (a film about life in the American West in
the past) was the first American genre to be developed and has remained a
staple of the American motion-picture art and industry. It has been estimated
that one quarter of US films have been Westerns. However, today most American
Westerns are made in Italy and are called '"spaghetti Westerns".
Musicals. The musicals of the late 1920s and the early 1930s
consisted of a series of "numbers" by established stars of Broad-way,
vaudeville and radio. Later manifestations of the form were the biographical
musicals, often highly fictionalized, about great composers, musicians,
singers, providing an opportunity to string together some of their most popular
hits. The transferring of musicals intact from the Broad-way stage became
almost automatic beginning in the 1950s.
Gangster films. While the Western deals with a mythical American
past and the musical with a fantasy land, the gangster film is closely tied to
a real facet of American life. In earlier films, the gangster had risen to the
top to enjoy wealth, power, beautiful women, expensive homes and large cars,
but before the end of the film he was bound to be caught by law-enforcement
officers, overthrown by fellow gang members or killed. Such punishment was
considered obligatory. By 1971, however, "The Godfather" showed how
far the genre has evolved: Marion Brando, in the title role, dies of old age.
The gangster was another businessman.
War films. They have evolved into a major American genre, since
wars have occupied so much of contemporary American history. The Second World
War has been the subject of the greatest number of American films in this
Horror films (thrillers). In the 1920s the creation of a monster
who gets out of control or is coming to life from non-human beings who survive
by killing the living provided the basic story lines of countless horror films.
These films also have dealt with supernatural forces that manifest themselves
as an unseen power rather than in individual form. A third major kind of horror
films deals with people who are insane or in the grip of psychological powers
beyond their control.
Horror films as a genre is associated with the name of Alfred
Hitchcock. Like Walt Disney with animated cartoons, Alfred Hitchcock was
thought not just to have invented a film genre but to have patented it (hence
"Hitch", another name for a horror film).
Detective and spy films. These include first of all the James
Bond series. Hitchcock's films of this genre feature ordinary people who
accidentally become involved with spies or other evil doers.
Science fiction. After the Second World War science-fiction
films increasingly suggested that the dangers of the future stemmed from what
human beings were doing in the present.
Columbia Pictures (also Columbia)-American film company, which
produces films for cinema and television.
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) — a film company based in Hollywood,
which has made many famous films and animated cartoons.
Paramount- a film company in Hollywood.
20th Century-Fox — an American film company.
United Artists — a film company (studio) in Hollywood.
Universal — n film company (studio) in Hollywood.
Warner Bros (Brothers) — an American film company.
Film Directors and Producers
Alien, Woody (1935—) — a comic actor and maker of humorous
films. Since the late 1960s, he has been directing films and acting in them,
usually playing a neurotic, bookish New Yorker. Some of his best-known films
have been "Annie Hall", "Manhattan" and "Hannah and
Capra, Frank (1897-1991) - a film director, best known for the
films "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington" and "It's a Wonderful
Chaplin, Charlie (Charles Spencer) (1889-1977) — an English
actor and director who worked mainly in the United States in silent
black-and-white comedy films. He created the beloved character, the Little
Tramp, who wore a shabby black suit, derby hat and floppy shoes, and walked
with the backs of his feet together and the toes pointing outwards. He always
walked with a cane.
By 1918 Chaplin had forsaken short comedies for longer,
independently made films, including "Shoulder Arms" (1918) and
"The Kid" (1921). His major films, produced for United Artists (a
film company which he helped to found in 1923), included "The Gold
Rush" (1925), "The Circus" (1928), "City Lights"
(1931) and "Modern Times" (1936), the latter two made as silent films
with synchronized sound effects. Chaplin spoke on the screen for the first time
in "The Great Dictator" (1940), which ridiculed Hitler and Mussolini.
In "Monsieur Verdoux" (1947), which draws an acid analogy between
warfare and business morality, the tramp disappeared entirely; the film
provided further ammunition for a growing anti-Chaplin group who attacked his
unconventional personal life and political views.
After 1952 Chaplin resided in Switzerland. He starred in his
production "A King in New York" (1957), a sharp satire on
contemporary America, and wrote and directed "A Countess from
Hongkong" (1967). Chaplin made a triumphant return to the United States in
1972. He was given an Academy Award (an Oscar) for his part in "making
motion pictures the art form of the century".
Coppola, Francis Ford (1939)- a film director, best known for
the films "'The Godfather" and "Apocalypse Now".
Ford, John (1895-1973) - a film director, especially known for
his Westerns including "Stagecoach", "How the West Was
Goldwin, Samuel (1882-1947) - a film producer, head of one of
the companies, which later became MGM. Goldwyn is famous for saying odd things
like "include me out".
Griffith, D. W. (1875-1948) - a film maker, known especially for
his use of new photographic methods and for his epic silent films, such as
"The Birth of the Nation" (1915) that required huge casts and
Griffith directed the first film, "The Adventures of
Dollie", in 1908 and went on to make hundreds of pictures. With "The
Birth of the Nation", he created a landmark in film industry. Also
influential on the future of the film was "Intolerance" (1916).
Griffith continued to make successful films throughout the 1920s. However, the
Victorian sentiment that pervades his films was increasingly alien to the
theme. He failed to make the transition to sound pictures.
Russel, Ken (1926-) — a film director, best known for
documentary films and for the film "Women in Love".
Scorsese, Martin (1942—) — a film director whose works include
"Taxi Driver", "The Last Temptation of Christ", etc.
Spielberg, Steven (1946—) — a film director who has made many
very popular films, including "Jaws", "LT", "Raiders
of the Lost Ark", "Star Wars", "Empire of the Sun",
etc. His films are well known for being very fast moving and full of exciting
Zinneman, Frederick (1907- ) – an American film director, born
in Austria, famous for the films such as "High Noon" and "The
Day of Jackal".
Wilder Billy (1906-) – a film director whose films include
"Sunset Boulevard" and "Some Like It Hot".
"The Birth of the Nation" — a dramatic silent film
from 1915 about the American Civil War. "The Birth of the Nation" was
directed by D. W. Griffith. The film, based on Thomas Dixon's novel "The
Clansman", has been condemned for historical distortion and racial bias, but
it became a landmark in the artistic development of motion pictures through its
successful introduction of many now-standard film techniques.
"Planet of the Apes " - a film set in about imaginary
future where monkeys rule the world.
''Psycho'' — a horror film directed by Alfred Hitchcock. It is
especially known for a scene in which the character Mario (Janet Leigh) is
stabbed in a shower by Norman Bates (Anthony Perkins).
"Rocky" — the first of a group of films (later ones
were called "Rocky II", "Rock III", etc.), starring Sylvester
Stallone as a determined boxer called Rocky. In each of the films the main
character overcomes difficulties and win a fight against a strong opponent. The
films are especially popular with young people.
"Star Wars " — a popular science-fiction film about
the battle between the hero, Luke Skywalker, and Darth Vader, an evil person
who wears a black mask over his face and comes from an evil empire. The film
was directed by Steven Spielberg and is remembered for its many new exciting
"The Terminator" — a film with Arnold Schwarzenegger,
set in Los Angeles in the near future in which a lot of people are killed. The
film was followed by "Terminator II".
Actors and Actresses.
Astaire, Fred (1899—1987) — a dancer, singer and actor who made
many films, often with his dancing partner, Ginger Rogers, and who was known
for his stylishness.
Bassinger, Kim (1954—) — a film actress, known especially for
playing attractive, sexy women.
Brando, Marlon (1924—) — an actor whose films include "A
Streetcar Named Desire", "On the Waterfront", "The
Cooper, Gary (1901—1962) — an actor who often played strong,
silent heroes, for example in the film "High Noon".
Costner, Kevin (1955—) — an actor and director whose films
include "Dances with Wolves", "Robin Hood: Prince of
Thieves", "JFK", etc.
Cruise, Tom (1962—) — an actor who has played leading film parts
since the early 1980s, e.g. in "Top Gun" and "Cocktail". He
is especially popular with women.
De Niro, Robert (1945—) — an actor, known especially for his
part in the films "Taxi Driver" and "The Deer Hunter".
Dietrich, Marlene (1904—1992) — an American actress and
nightclub performer, born in Germany, who usually played the part of an
extremely sexually attractive woman. She is best remembered for her part in the
film "Blue Angel".
Douglas, Kirk (1916—) — a film actor, known for playing the hero
in films such as "Spartacus".
Douglas, Michael (1944—) — a film actor, son of Kirk Douglas,
known for his part in the films "Fatal Attraction" and ''Romancing
Eastwood, Clint (1930—) — a film actor and director, best known
for playing parts as a gunfighter in Westerns and a modern city police officer.
His characters almost always have their right on their side, and no fear.
Fonda, Henry (1905-1982) - an actor who made many films
including "The Grapes of Wrath", "Twelve Angry Men",
"On Golden Pond", etc.
Fonda, Jane (1937—) — an actress, daughter of Henry Fonda, known
for her left-wing views, especially her support for Vietnam and her opposition
to the American government during the Vietnam War. Her best-known films are
"The China Syndrome" and, with her father, "On Golden
Pond". She is also known for her interest in active physical exercise.