It is impossible to imagine our television, newspapers, radio,
Internet and even streets without advertisements. Nowadays advertising plays an
important role in modern life and in the life of every person. We can’t imagine
our life without advertising because every day we hear or see advertising, we
try to find information we need in hundreds of advertisements. Even when we go
for a walk or just shopping we see a lot of different advertisements in the
streets. I think that "Advertising” is a very interesting topic, because in the
XXI century every minute of our life is connected with advertising. It is hard
to believe but the origins of advertising antedate the Christian era by many
centuries. One of the first known methods of advertising was outdoor display,
usually an eye-catching sign painted on the wall of a building. From this
unsophisticated beginnings in ancient times advertising has turned into a
The word "advertising” comes from the French word
"reclame". Advertising if to speak a simple language, serves to
notify in various ways (sometimes all available) the new goods or services and
their consumer properties, and is directed to the potential consumer, paid by
the sponsor and serves for promotion of its production and ideas. Advertising
is a part of communication activity of a firm, alongside with publicity and
stimulation of selling. Advertising unessentially imposes the goods on the
buyer. Sometimes it simply forces to recollect the last concrete mark or the name
of the goods or service when the customer makes the choice. At the beginning
the consumer decides to choose from what, and already then what mark to prefer,
on the basis of the representation about it, a stereotype or a developed image
of concrete mark of the goods or service. There are a lot of definitions of the
word "advertising”. For example, advertising is collective term for public
announcements designed to promote the sale of specific commodities or services.
Advertising is a form of mass selling, employed when the use of direct,
person-to-person selling is impractical, impossible, or simply inefficient. It
is to be distinguished from other activities intended to persuade the public,
such as propaganda, publicity, and public relations. Advertising techniques
range in complexity from the publishing of simple, straightforward notices in
the classified – advertising columns of newspapers to the concerted use of
newspapers, magazines, television, radio, internet and other communication
media in the course of a single advertising campaign. In the US alone in the
late 1980s approximately $120 billion was spent in a single year on advertising
to influence the purchase of commodities and services.
Advertising has achieved the greatest blossoming in the United
States of America. American advertising leads the world not only in volume of
business but in the complexity of its organization and of its procedures.
Modern advertising is an integral segment of urban industrial civilization,
reflecting contemporary life in its best and worst aspects. Having proved its
force in the movement of economic goods and services, advertising since the
early 1960s has been directed in increasing quantity toward matters of social
concern. The continuing cancer and antidrug abuse campaigns are only two
examples of the use of the advertising industry as a means to promote public
The basic underlying advertising idea is the idea of human
needs. Need is the feeling of shortage of something experienced by the person.
If the need is not satisfied, the person feels like destitute and unfortunate.
Unsatisfied person will do one of the following things: either will be engaged
in search of the object, capable to satisfy his or her need, or will try to
The second initial idea of advertising is the idea of human
requirements. Requirement is the need which has accepted the specific form
according to a cultural level and the personal features of the individual.
Requirements of people are practically boundless,but resources for their
satisfaction are limited. So the person will choose those goods which will give
him or her the greatest satisfaction within the framework of his or her
The inquiry is the requirement supported by purchasing capacity.
So, for example, in Europe automobile " Volkswagen " personifies an
elementary automobile, a low purchase price, and "Cadillac" - high
comfort, luxury and prestige. Russian people choose "Zhiguli" as they
have no opportunity to buy such expensive cars and "Zhiguli" gives
them the greatest satisfaction for money available for them.
And, at last, human needs and requirements and inquiries suggest
about the existence of the goods for their satisfaction. The goods are
everything, that can satisfy requirements or needs and they are offered to the
market with the purpose of gaining the attention of the consumers, purchasing,
using or consuming.
The structure of advertising contains the following five basic
The first one, it possesses the ability to draw attention. It is
very important to draw attention of readers by headings and televiewers by a
video series. It is necessary to find out whether advertising influences those
categories of potential consumers for which it is designed.
The second one, the force of influence of advertising on the
emotions of consumers. It is necessary to know what feelings are born in them
under the influence of advertising, whether the advertising argument is
successful and whether it is made correctly.
The third one, how strong is the force of influence. We should
admit whether the consumer will run to buy these goods after viewing
advertising or will continue sitting in an armchair in spite of the fact that
he or she likes advertising it and there is a necessity to purchase the advertising
The fourth one is its informative value. We must be sure that
the advertising is stated clearly, the utility of promoted thing is shown
correctly and profoundly.
And the last, the fifth one, we should know for sure whether the
person will want to read the message or to see an advertising roller up to the
end. We must know how effectively advertising gains attention of the people.
Nevertheless, we should admit that advertising actually enriches
our lives. Commercial television is able to provide us with free programmes
thanks to its advertising revenues, local newspapers and magazines derive also
much revenue from advertising, which allows them to exist. At least,
advertising makes people mind go far in their creativity, generating over and over
new interesting ideas.
At first when trade began to develop wide and fast advertising
was oral. Traders, dealers and vagrant handicraftsmen offered their highly
praised goods and various services in eager rivalry filling with shouts the
streets of their cities and towns. The early advertising was carried out by the
city heralds or town/city criers. "Golden Age" of ancient Greece saw
many heralds who went along the streets of Athenes, proclaiming about sales of
slaves, cattle and other goods.
One more early version of advertising was a brand which
handicraftsmen put on their goods, such, as pottery. As rumours brought
information of a skilful handicraftsman, buyers started to search for the goods
with his brand. Today for the same purpose trade marks and branded names are
used. In the process of centralization of manufacture value of a brand
We can see advertisements in the early documents of written
history. During excavations on the territory of the countries belonging to the
Mediterranean region archeologists found the signboards informing on various
events and offers. The Romans painted walls with announcements of gladiatorial
fights, and the Phoenicians painted rocks on routes of different trade
processions, in every possible way praising to the skies their goods. One of
the inscriptions on the walls of the house in Pompeii highly praised one
outstanding politician and called people to give their voices for him voting
that time. All these things are predecessors of modern outdoor advertising.
The first advertising in written form is considered to be
information on Egyptian papyrus which tells about the sale of the slave and
nowadays this papyrus is kept in the British Museum in London.
Advertising began long before the Christian era. One of the
first known methods of advertising was the outdoor display, usually
eye-catching signs painted on the wall of a building. Archaeologists found many
such like signs, in the ruins of ancient Rome and Pompeii. An outdoor
advertisement excavated in Rome offers property for rent, and one more found
advertisement painted on a wall in Pompeii calls the attention of travellers to
a tavern situated in another town.
Messages of commercial character were drawn on rocks along
trading ways. Greeks engraved advertising messages on stones, copper, bones and
they cut them out on wooden columns. The stone column with the inscription on
it: "Here I live, Minos, from the island Cyprus. On favour of Gods I am
allocated with the ability to interpret dreams for a very moderate pay” was
found in the ruins of an ancient Egyptian city Memphis. A fine example of
announcement: brevity and market capacity.
In medieval times word-of-mouth praise of products gave rise to
a simple but effective form of advertising, the use of so-called town criers.
The criers were citizens who read public notices aloud and were also employed
by merchants to shout the praises of their wares.
A turning point in the history of advertisement was 1450 when a
printing press was invented that allowed to multiply advertisements quickly and
qualitatively. The advertizer did not need to produce extra copies of the
advertisements. The first printed announcement in English appeared in 1478.
In 1622 advertising received powerful stimulus as the first
newspaper in English began to be printed. It was called "Weekly News
". Later Edison and Stel started to issue a newspaper
"Tatler",and they did a lot for spreading advertising. Edison printed
the following advice to advertisers: " Great art of correctly written advertisement
consists in searching correct approach in gaining the attention of the reader
giving him the right kind of sales message, creating preference for it,
persuading him to buy the advertising thing".
A major mark in the development of Russian advertising was 1703
when under Peter’s I decree the edition of the first Russian newspaper began.
Many newspapers were published and a lot of advertisements were written in
them. In 1878 in
Moscow a businessman Mettsel put forward a slogan "Advertisement is a motive
force and power of trade”. And he established the first advertising office.
In volume and technique, advertising made its greatest advances
in the United States of America. In the early stages of American advertising
nationwide promotion was impractical because the nation itself was
underdeveloped and lacked transcontinental transportation, distribution, and
communications systems. Eventually, however, certain types of manufacturer
conceived the idea of bypassing wholesalers and retailers and reaching the
consumer through direct advertising, mainly by means of catalogs. The pioneers
in this field were seed companies and book and pamphlet publishers. Mail-order
houses appeared in 1870s. To the present day they have continued to expand
their business through direct-mail catalog and flyer advertising, although some
of the biggest houses sell also through retail outlets.
Railroads and steamship lines were also among the early users of
advertising in the United States, not only to praise the luxury and comfort of
their ways of travel but also to publish their schedules and rates.
In the 19th century two types of advertisement dominated:
printed (calendars, lists, price-lists) and external (signboards of shops,
taverns and warehouses).
In Soviet times such outstanding persons as V. Mayakovsky and V.
Kustodiyev were engaged in advertising.
Here are some examples of advertising texts by Mayakovsky.
Всё, что требует желудок,
Тело ил ум, -
Всё человеку предоставит Гум.
Тому не страшен мороз зловещий,
Кто в Гуме купит теплые вещи.
Кооператор! Торгуй книгой!
Свет и знание в деревню двигай!
In 1925 in
Paris Mayakovsky and Rodchenko were awarded with silver medals for
advertisements at the International Art Industrial Exhibition.
After World War I advertising developed into a business so big
that it became almost a trademark of America itself in the eyes of the world.
This expansion was stimulated by many technical improvements.
The increased use of electricity led to the illuminated outdoor
poster. Advertising was used increasingly by public-relations specialists as an
important means of communication. The invention of radio in 1920s stimulated
the development of a new technique of selling by voice.
The most significant development was television, a medium that
forced the advertising industry to improve its techniques of selling by the use
of visual devices as well as by voice.
Advertising is a kind of activity which purpose is realization
of marketing or other industrial tasks of enterprises and public organizations
by distribution of the information paid by them, generated so that to render
influence on mass or individual consciousness, causing the reaction of the
chosen consumer audience.
In the USA and other industrially advanced countries the word
"advertising" means advertisements in mass media (in press, by radio,
TV, on panelboard advertising) and is not distributed to the actions promoting
sales, - "sales promotion ”, the prestigious actions aimed at a gain of
goodwill of the public, - "public relations”, and also on specific area of
advertising activity roughly developing recently, which essence in the directed
communications of the manufacturer with the consumer -
In domestic practice the concept of advertising is wider.
Exhibition actions, commercial seminars, packing, printed products,
distribution of souvenirs and other means of stimulation of trading activity is
included in it.
It is necessary to give the following definitions of advertising
International - modern activity of firms of industrially
advanced countries, focused on the foreign markets in view of their features;
External economic - activity of the domestic enterprises and the
organizations in the foreign markets, reflecting modern practice;
Internal - activity of the domestic enterprises and the
organizations serving a home market.
Proceeding from definitions of advertising, it is possible to
allocate its main elements :
1. Advertising is paid.
2. It is carried out with the use of mass-media or special
3. The advertizer is precisely established.
4. Advertising informs and agitates for the goods or services.
Advertising has two basic functions:
Transfer information about the goods and services to consumers
and acquaint potential clients with it.
Any advertising gives information about the promoted goods or
service, a place of sale, the price to its customer. In the market the
opportunity of choice of the most favourable offer is given to the buyer.
Possessing this choice advertising has essential advantage.
The buyer has received a certain sum of money as an unexpected
premium. He enters a market and searches for the goods or service which he can
obtain for the money (or searches for a place where money can be put on
storage). Having seen advertising in the morning paper he decides to buy the TV
set. From advertising of the enterprises engaged in manufacturing of TV sets,
he receives information on TV sets of this or that brand, their advantages. We
admit the buyer has already chosen what he wants to buy. Having read a local
morning paper, he can find out advertising about the existence and whereabouts
of those shops which sell TV sets which are interesting for the buyer and about
the prices for them. Having compared all the conditions of sale, guarantee
repair, etc. he comes to the shop he has chosen and buys its brand of the TV.
Thus it is possible to see that advertising is a very important source of
information for the buyer.
Propaganda of the given goods or service for the benefit of
buyers. This function consists of the influence on mentality of the person with
the purpose to call in him a desire to buy the given goods or service. With the
help of advertising the advertiser achieves that the consumer has a desire to
buy such a thing, to make such charges which would not take a place under
normal conditions, i.e. the latent requirements wake up.
Any advertising to some extent carries out the first function
because always gives the information to the customer about the goods or
service. Partly advertising is designed for propaganda of the goods or
services, but this advertising also carries the information of the existence of
the advertiser, his or her goods or service and the information for the benefit
of the given goods or service.
Practically, all advertising is designed for such subject of the
market, as housekeeping. It certainly does not mean, that only housekeeping use
advertising because the object of the advertisement can be not only the user of
the goods or services, but also industrial enterprises, and also the state.
However advertisement most of all is used in housekeeping.
Advertising gives the information to the consumer about the
seller or his goods, the prices for these goods, information about the place of
sale. For many consumers local advertising became the assistant and the
guidebook on shops. Also advertising often "tells" about improvements
of the goods, changes in quality, etc.
In each market there are new buyers who know nothing about
existing sellers, their goods, a place to sale, etc. These buyers require the
information about sellers and their goods. Feeling necessity in the goods or
service buyers begin searching for such information. Advertising represents for
him value because it betrays already listed above information. "Having
met" advertising, the buyer receives the message about the seller and his
goods or service. It reduces uncertainty for the buyer and helps him to make
the correct decision on purchase.
Division of advertising into three kinds is standard: informative,
competitive and reminding. These kinds of advertising I will use as the example
of advertising Non state pension fund "SOUTH".
1. Informative or initial. This advertising acquaints the
possible buyer with the new goods in the market, a place of its sale. For
example: "NSP" the SOUTH ” renders the following kinds of
services:....................... The address:........ ”
2. Competitive, convincing or agitating. The advertiser with the
help of various means and ways (skilful drawing up of the text, selection of
expressive words, etc.) influences mentality of the person with the purpose to
call, generate or wake up in him requirement for the given goods or service. He
allocates the promoted goods from all similar goods and convinces the buyer to
get these goods. For example: " Having used services NSP "SOUTH" you
will get confidence of tomorrow's day, you can save up the significant sums on
the contribution, you will get additional education and a floor space........
Think of tomorrow's day. ”
3. Safe or reminding. Advertising reminds of earlier promoted
goods, supports adherence to the brand, i.e. gives the repeated information on
the goods because the consumer can quite "forget" about the existence
of the goods and anew begin to search for the information necessary for him.
"Confidence of tomorrow's day - NSP "SOUTH".”
Each kind of advertising carries out both functions of
advertising, but everyone has the different purposes. So informative and safe
advertising carries out mainly the first function as it is aimed first of all
at transferring the information. Agitating advertising is created for
propaganda of the goods, therefore it carries out mainly the second function,
but also gives the information.
Therefore they also differ in each kind these functions are
combined in different proportions. Such classification can be used by
consideration of interaction of advertising and life cycle of the goods or
service, development and the analysis of an advertising campaign, consideration
of the process of formation of the consumer's requirements , but it is not
absolutely approaches at the analysis of the contents of the advertisement
because reminding advertising is inherently only brief information. Therefore
classification of advertising is necessary for the analysis of the contents of
the advertisement on the basis of its basic functions: Informing and
Informing advertising is advertising which overall objective is
producing knowledge about the product or service.
Propaganda is agitating advertising, which overall objective is
propaganda of the goods or services, belief in necessity to get promoted goods
It is impossible to carry out the precise side between these
kinds (as well as in the prevailing classification) because each kind carries
out not the basic function as well.
In the basis of any advertising lays elementary information sent
so that the buyer first of all has believed it and has chosen the promoted
goods from all sets of goods.
While writing the essay I have made a public opinion polling
among schoolmates and in the streets. The result of it you can see in this
attitude to advertising.
you trust the advertising.
advertising you prefer.
advertising you notice more often.
advertising is necessary in the society.
advertising is information.
Thus, the attitude of the people to advertising is positive. As
a rule they trust it, preferring advertising by TV. 98 per cent of people agree
that advertising is necessary and they use it in their life. That’s why I’ve
chosen a very actual problem to investigate nowadays, the problem which worries
and interests a lot of people and many people are involved in the process of
Abroad advertisements are usually carried by mass media –
newspapers, magazines, radio, TV and by outdoor advertising – signboards,
standard boards, hoardings.
Advertising in popular editions is very expensive. Therefore,
saving on them, the advertiser risks to lose broad audience of consumers. The
advertising is usually bright and eye-catching. At the same time it should be
understandable to the reader, the spectator, the student, where advertising and
where an editorial material. The form of the advertising reference should
correspond to culture and outlook of an advertising audience on which it is
Creative approaches can be different. For example, while
advertising the goods of mass demand, as a rule, we must use emotional motives,
for products of industrial purpose - rational. But in any case advertising is
effective only when meets the following requirements:
1. Market characteristics of the goods are precisely formulated
– advertising contains specific information of its use, differences from the
goods of competitors;
2. Advertisement promises the consumer essential benefits at
purchasing the goods, the advantages of which are given, positive features are
singled out in headings of advertising, in illustrations and even in the
stylistics of the text and graphic materials;
3. Advertisement contains successful advertising idea -
original, attractive, and at the same time easy for understanding and
4. Advertising creates and introduces in consciousness the clear
image of the goods which is thought over in details - a stereotype increasing
its value in opinion of consumers;
5. Advertising emphasizes high quality of the offered goods and
at the same time itself associates with this high quality;
6. It is original and consequently it is not boring, does not
repeat the known, bothered decisions;
7. Advertising has an exact target orientation, reflecting
different searches, desires, interests of concrete consumers and informing them
so that taking into account distinctions of a consumer, it demands certain
8. Advertising gains the attention of the audience that is
reached by successful art and text decisions, placement of the advertisement in
mass media using high reputation;
9. Advertising emphasizes new unique features and properties of
the goods that is the precondition of its success in the market and the most
working part of advertising argument;
10. Advertising concentrates attention on the main thing, not
complicating, offers only that is important for the consumer, and addresses
directly to him.
Advertising in mass media influences broad and consequently is
expedient for products and services of wide consumption and mass demand. When
there is a question of choice of mass-media the basic reasons "for"
and "against" of accepting alternative decisions are: conformity of
advertising to target groups of the population potentially interested in the
promoted goods; popularity among them the edition, audience of spectators; a
fare level for advertising areas or broadcasting time; geography of
distribution or action. Naturally, features of concrete means of distribution
of advertising are taken into account.
The complex advertising campaigns including the announcements in
press, by radio, TV, on hoardings are under construction using the same
advertising ideas and creative power so that opportunities of each means of
advertising supplement each other.
Advertising in newspapers and magazines has received a wide
circulation and on volume of expenses concedes only to advertising on TV.
Advertising in newspapers is cheaper than on television. At the same time
quality of reproduction of advertising originals in newspapers is usually low.
The advertisements placed in them, as a rule, are less attractive, and each
edition has simultaneously many such announcements, in this connection
influence of any of them is separately reduced.
Specificity of advertising in press dictates the following
special approaches for its creation and placement:
1. The heading should involve the consumer, allow to him the new
information, contain the basic argument and the name of the goods;
2. It is not necessary to be afraid of plenty of words, if all
of them are to the point, the long heading works even better, than the short
3. The consumer is quite often ready to perceive the information
literally, therefore it is better to do without negative revolutions because in
his memory the negative moments can be saved, associating with a subject of
4. It is necessary to use simple words, but positively working
on all, for example, "free-of-charge", "novelty", etc.;
illustrations the intrigue is very valuable;
6. Photos work better, than figures, especially when they
compare a status before occurrence, using of the goods;
7. Simple breadboard model with one big illustration of a format
of a journal strip is an ideal variant of the advertisement in press;
8. It is not necessary to be afraid of long texts because if the
consumer is interested in more detailed information, he, involved with heading,
will read all the text up to the end;
9. The text should be easy for recognition, without boasting,
represent the facts, instead of mere allegations;
10. The trust to advertising raises, if the photo and the text
reflect a picture of a real life, the certificate of eyewitnesses,
11. It is not necessary to print the text light letters on a
dark background - it is difficult to read.
Advantage of radio over other mass media is: a 24-hour
announcement to many regions and a variety of programs. Radio is listened to in
inhabited and industrial rooms, in the kitchen, walking on clean air, in the
car. Therefore the advertisements placed in corresponding radio programs, cover
significant percent of audience of consumers, irrespective of where they are -
at job, on rest, in a way. The radio advertising is operative and has low cost.
At the same time during recognition of the advertising references broadcast by
radio, sight through which the person receives up to 90 % of information does
not participate. Besides the radio advertising complicates an establishment of
bilateral communications with the consumer. Often the consumer does not have a
pencil, a paper to write down the information transferred in the announcement.