228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка)
Для тих, хто
вивчає American Studies (поглиблено) в КНУ Шевченка (Інститут Філології) а
також всіх інших, хто готується до екзамену. 228 відповідей на питання з
Американістики. Джерела - \r\nон-лайн енцикопедії, the Potrtait of the USA, конспекти
лекцыъ Шевченко Н.Б.
1.What factors caused the changes that made American
English different from British English?
for self-identification, influence of other languages, distance between the
2.What differences are there in British and American
English? Differences in grammar,
pronunciation and spelling.
3.What differences in pronunciation are there in British
and American English?
American English not do not have as much as rises and
falls as in British English, voices have higher pitch, , they are nasalized,
"r” is pronounced always, t/d a bit voiced, etc.
British EnglishAmerican English
Ableamicable, hospitable, formidable
aercourage, nourish, flourish, current,
eeisemi-, anti-, multi-
privacy, vitamins, either, neither, leisure
on the term "Americanism" and give examples of Americanisms in English.
-originate from America
(are pointed in dictionaries if they have British variant)
-vocabulary units which can be used in all English-speaking countries.
5.Comment on the differences between British and
Simple is used more often than Present Perfect (to introduce a recent
happening; give new information; with just, already, yet)
got= I have; Have you got?= Do you have?
is never used in the first form singular
is used asking for the instructions
auxiliaries (you needn’t/ you don’t need; I suggest that you do it)
team, family – singular
street/on the street
bath/have a bath; take a shower/have a shower
hospital/ to, in the hospital
spoilt/burned, spoiled – some irregular Br. verbs are regular in Am. E.
got, got/get, got, gotten
6.Give examples of some borrowings from other languages
made in America.
Indian: opossum, raccoon, skunk, caribou, moose
French: prairie, rapids
Spanish: lasso, cafeteria, rodeo, sombrero
German: semester, seminar, frankfurter
Dutch: cookie, Yankee, Santa Claus
African: Jazz, hippie
7.Describe the borders of the US.
The United States of
America, also referred to as the United States, U.S.A.,
U.S., America, or the States, is a federal republic in
central North America, stretching from the Atlantic in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. It shares land borders with Canada in the north and Mexico in the south, a marine border with Russia in the
northwest, and has a collection of districts, territories, and possessions
around the world.
The United States proper has land borders with Canada and Mexico,
as well as several territorial water boundaries with Canada,
and The Bahamas. It is otherwise bounded by the Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea,
the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.
8.How many states are there in the United States?The
country has fifty states and the district
of Columbia, which have a level of local autonomy
according to the system of federalism.
9.Which of the states is the biggest in area and which
one is the smallest? Corresp. Alaska and Rhode
10.Name as many states as you can without taking breath. See the att.
11.What regions are American states usually divided
made up of Maine, New
Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut,
and Rhode Island.
Atlantic, comprising New York, New
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland.
which runs from Virginia south to Florida and west as far as central Texas. This region also includes West Virginia, Kentucky,
Tennessee, North Carolina,
South Carolina, Georgia,
and parts of Missouri and Oklahoma.
a broad collection of states sweeping westward from Ohio to Nebraska and
including Michigan, Indiana, Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, Iowa, parts of
Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Kansas, and eastern Colorado.
Southwest, made up of western Texas, portions
of Oklahoma, New Mexico,
and the southern interior part of California.
Alabama - nickname: The Heart of Dixie, The Cotton State, The
Yellowhammer State,flower: Camellia,
Mississippi - nickname: Magnolia State,
flower: Flower or Bloom of the Magnolia or Evergreen Magnolia, bird:
Mockingbird. +see the att.
18.What is the largest river in the US?The Mississippi (2320 miles
(3733 km). The river begins as a 12-foot wide stream in Minnesota. Flowing due south, it is joined
by two main tributaries, the Missouri River at St. Louis
and the Ohio at Cairo, Illinois.
Below Cairo, the Mississippi swells into a powerful waterway,
often 4,500 feet across. It drains more than a million miles of land as it
flows 2,348 miles south to empty into the Gulf of Mexico at New Orleans.
19.Give the names of the biggest and most important
rivers in the US.
The Mississippi,the Missouri,
the Yukon, the Rio Grande,
the Ohio, the Columbia,
the St. Lawrence, the Arkansas, the Colorado.
20.What river does Washington, D.C.
The Columbia River.
rivers wash Manhattan in New York City? The East
River, the Harlem River, and the Hudson River.
22.What are the two biggest mountain systems in the US? The Appalachian mountain, the Rocky
23.What is the name of the mountain system which takes up
the Western part of the USterritory?Rocky
the names of the Great Lakes. Lake
Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario.
25.What are the biggest lakes in the US?Michigan, Iliamna, Okeechobee, Becharof, Red Lake.
26.Give the names of some well-known capes in the US. Cape Cod (New England), Cape
Hatteras, Cape Lookout (North Carolina), Cape Canaveral (Florida).
27.Give the English for: Скелясті гори, Ніагарський
водоспад, Мексиканська затока, Арканзас, Ілінойс. The
Rocky Mountains, The Niagara Falls, The Gulf of
Mexico, Arkansas, Illinois.
28.Give the names of as many National Parks in the US as you can. The Yellowstone
the Grand Canyon NP (Arizona), the Petrified
Forest NP (Arizona), the Yosemite NP (California), the Sequoia NP (California),
the Everglades NP (Florida), the Zion NP (Utah).
a few words about the climate in the US.
The climate varies along with the landscape, from
tropical in Hawaii and southern Florida to tundra in Alaska and atop some of the highest
mountains. Most of the North and East experience a temperate continental
climate, with warm summers and cold winters. Most of the American South
experiences a subtropical humid climate with mild winters and long, hot, humid
summers. Rainfall decreases markedly from the humid forests of the Eastern
Great Plains to the semiarid shortgrass prairies on the High Plains abutting
the Rocky Mountains. Arid deserts, including
the Mojave, extend through the lowlands and valleys of the American Southwest
from westernmost Texas to California
and northward throughout much of Nevada.
Some parts of the American West, including San Francisco, California,
have a Mediterranean climate. Rain forests line the windward mountains of the
Pacific Northwest from Oregon to Alaska.
30.What branches of industry and agriculture are
highly developed in the US? Illustrate your answer with the names
of regions and cities.
country has rich mineral resources, with extensive gold, oil, coal, and uranium
deposits. Successful farm industries rank the country among the top producers
of, among others, corn, wheat, sugar, and tobacco. The U.S.
manufacturing sector produces, among other things, cars, airplanes, and
electronics. The largest industry is now service, which employs roughly
three-quarters of U.S.
activity varies greatly from one part of the country to another, with many
industries being largely dependent on a certain city or region; New York City
is the center of the American financial, publishing, broadcasting, and
advertising industries; Silicon Valley is the country’s primary location for
high technology companies, while Los Angeles is the most important center for film
production. The Midwest is known for its reliance on manufacturing and heavy
industry, with Detroit serving as the center of the American automotive
industry; the Great Plains are known as "the breadbasket of America” for their
tremendous agricultural output, while Texas is largely associated with the oil
industry; the Southeastern U.S. is a major hub for medical research, as well as
many of the nation's textiles manufacturers.
31. What is the population of the US?
296,428,342 (according to the National Census Bureau)
32.What ethnic groups make up the population in the US? White people (Caucasians, 63%), Hispanics (Latinos,
12,5%),Black people (Afro-Americans,
12,3%), People of Asian origin (Asian Americans 3,6), American Indians,
Eskimos, Aleuts (Native born Americans, American Indians, came from Asia,
Siberia to Alaska
through the Bering’s strait (Берингов пролив) 20000 ago). Nomadic tribes
According to the 2000 census, the
has 37 ethnic groups with at least one million people each.
33.How can the majority and minority groups be defined in
and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons
who do not belong to it. Minority only makes sense in the context of a unified
society or group. This can be used to refer to people of a different language,
nationality, religion, culture, lifestyle or any characteristic, provided these
people are accepted as part of the referent group.
decades the term minority has taken on a new meaning among the politically
correct, being used to refer to a group with which they perceive to be worthy
of special preferential treatment. For instance, while numerically women
outnumber men in most societies, they can be said in politically correct terms
to be a minority, given their claim of inferior treatment compared to men.
is a sub-group that outnumbers non-members in any particular group, or, in the
politically correct sense of the word, has traditionally higher social status,
e.g. white male Protestants in the USA.
The majority of the 296 million people currently living in the United States
descend from European immigrants who have arrived since the establishment of
the first colonies. Major components of the European segment of the United States population are descended from
immigrants from Germany (23
percent), Ireland (16 percent),
England (13 percent), Scotland, The Netherlands and Italy (6
percent), with many immigrants also coming from Scandinavian or Slavic
countries. Other significant immigrant populations came from eastern and
southern Europe and French Canada; few immigrants came directly from France.
Likewise, while there were few immigrants directly from Spain, Hispanics from Mexico
and South and Central America are considered
the largest minority group in the country. Other ethnic minority groups:
African Americans (many of whom are descendants of the enslaved Africans
brought to the U.S.
between the 1620s and 1807),Asian American population (most of whom are
concentrated on the West Coast), the aboriginal population of Native Americans,
such as American Indians and Inuit.
34.Comment on the politically correct use of the
vocabulary when speaking about ethnicity
and race in the US.
Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or
alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. The term most often
appears in the form politically correct or PC, and is generally used mockingly
or disparagingly. One stated aim of politically correct language is to prevent
the exclusion or the offending of people because of their differences or
When used this way, it often targets advocates of certain forms of
identity politics, including gay rights, feminism, multiculturalism and the
disability rights movement. The use of "gender-neutral" terms to
describe occupations ("fire-fighter" instead of "fireman,"
"chairperson" instead of "chairman," etc.), for example,
might be referrred to as "political correctness" to characterize its
proponents as overly sensitive or even coercive.
In the United States over the course of
one hundred years, blacks became Negroes, then became blacks again, then became
Afro-Americans, then became African-Americans (the current term). In the
meantime, the term "colored" came into and went out of usage, while
the related term "people of color" came into usage later on.
Eskimo, a word that has long been
viewed as pejorative by the people it refers to, has increasingly been replaced
by more specific terms (for example, Inuit, Yupik, and Aleut).
Indians became Native Americans
or Indigenous People in the United
States. American Indian and Amerindian are
also gaining popularity. Similarly, they became known in Canada as First
Nations or aboriginal peoples.
Caucasian (used in place of
White). People of Color (used to describe people of certain ethnicities,
including Whites of Hispanic origin).
designations are there for different generation groups in the US?
Woodstock generation – in 1969 there was a huge rock-music festival in the field which could
be attended by a lot of people (hippies)
Baby Boomers – people who were born during 1945-1964 – the period of increased
Xers – the
are called "baby-boomers"? Baby boomers –people who were born during the period of increased burth
rate – 1945-64. As is often the case with a large war, the elation of victory
and large numbers of returning males to their country triggered a baby boom
after the end of World War II in many countries around the globe, notably those
of Europe, Asia, North America and Australasia.
37.Comment on the word
38.WASP - a white person of Anglo-Saxon ancestry
who belongs to a Protestant denomination.
WASP is an
acronym which stands for White Anglo-Saxon Protestant. The term is generally
considered to have been coined by E. Digby Baltzell as a convenient shorthand
in his 1964 book The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy & Caste in America. (An E.
B. Palmore is also credited with defining it in a 1962 journal article.)
be noted that the term is tautological, as all Anglo-Saxons, by definition, are
"white". Also, strictly speaking, it does not apply to many, perhaps
even most people called "WASPs", as they are not descended from
Angles, Saxons, or members of closely-related tribes.
as used in the United States,
generally describes a class of wealthy whites with ties to colonial America, who
often have a certain amount of social standing and may or may not be part of
the Establishment. The Northern European denominations of Christianity probably
encompassed by the WASP idea include Episcopal (Anglican), Presbyterian,
Lutheran, Methodist, Congregationalist (Puritan), Dutch Reformed, Quaker,
Northern Baptist and Southern Baptist, et al.
contemporary use, the term is usually used to denote wealthier, educated
Protestants, often in the context of high society, prep school, or Ivy
League-level college educations. The term, when used this way, is most often
applied to the New England and the
Preppy is a term in the popular vocabulary, traditionally used to
describe the characteristics of patrician, White, Anglo-Saxon Protestants
(usually with some personal or familial connection to New
England; e.g. WASP) who attend or attended major private,
secondary preparatory schools. These characteristics include particular
subcultural speech, vocabulary, accent, dress, mannerisms, etiquette, and
general way of being.
some of the biggest waves of
immigration to the US.
Europe (France, England, Holland,
–people seeking wealth, land and freedom – a better life.
–pilgrims in search of religious freedom.
France, Switzerland, Spain,
Africa – people brought unwillingly as slaves.
Europe – famine, poor crops, rising
populations, political unrest.
–famine, poor potato crops.
– the federal government encouraged immigration by offering grants of land to
those who would serve as troops in the armies of the North.
Italy, Greece + Eastern Europe
(Jews who suffered from fierce pogroms – massacres).
1945 Europe– refugees who were uprooted by the
horrors of war.
Hungary, Czech Republic – after the Soviet Unio crushed
the attempt to establish a non-communist government.
Cuba – after Fidel Castro
took control of Cuba.
Cuba, Southeast Asia, Vietnam, Cambodia, The Lao People’s Democratic Republic –
political refugees + economical refugees.
Ireland, Canada, Poland,
– skilled workers and professionals.
Bangladesh, Pakistan, Peru,
– "diversity visas”.
– The Soviet Union, Vietnam,
Afghanistan etc -refugees, fear of
39.What were the reasons of a big immigration
wave from Ireland
in the middle of the 1911'century?
–famine, poor potato crops.
40.What attracted many Germans who came to the US during the
– the federal government encouraged immigration by offering grants of land to
those who would serve as troops in the armies of the North.
41. When and why did the massive
Jewish immigration to the US
Eastern Europe -Jews who suffered from fierce
42. Have there been any examples
of unwilling immigration to the US?
Africa –500000 people were brought to the
colonies unwillingly as slaves. 1808- importing slaves became a crime.
43.Give examples of the laws passed by the US Congress to
limit the number of immigrants.
– the US
government banned most Chinese immigration. Other Asians were refused to entry
The Reed-Johnson immigration act (set limits on how many people from each
foreign country would be permitted to immigrate.)
– a new law signed by President Johnson ended the old system of immigration. No
more consideration of peoples’ country of origin, the USA has
accepted immigrants strictly on the basis of who applies firs within overall
44.Where is the museum of immigration to the US situated? Ellis
Island in New York Harbor, New
York, was the gateway to a new life in the USA for over 12
million immigrants between the years 1892 and 1924. A former reception centre
for immigrants during the immigration waves between 1892 and 1943 (12 million
people passed through it from 1892 to 1924), it was later used (until 1954) as
a detention centre for nonresidents without documentation, or for those who
were being deported. Ellis Island is now a national historic site (1964) and
contains the Museum
of Immigration (1989).
45.What were the reasons why people at different
times left their home countries for America? Search
of better life, political and religious persecution, new lands, etc
46.What have the immigrants always been seeking
in the US?
Wealth, land and freedom – a better life.
47.What was the port of entry for the immigrants
in the past? 1892 –the government opened a special port of
entry in New York harbor, Ellis
48. What do you know about the
Statue of Liberty?
Statue of Liberty National Monument officially celebrated her 100th birthday on
October 28, 1986. The people of France
gave the Statue to the people of the United States over one hundred
years ago in recognition of the friendship established during the American
Revolution. Over the years, the Statue of Liberty has grown to include freedom
and democracy as well as this international friendship. Located on 12-acre
Liberty Island in New York
Frederic Auguste Bartholdi was commissioned to design a sculpture with the year
1876 in mind for completion, to commemorate the centennial of the American
Declaration of Independence.
Statue of Liberty began lightning the way for new arrivals just at a time when
native-born Americans began worrying that the US was being overrun by immigrants.
49.What American states suffer most of all from
illegal immigration? US-Mexican border
Texas, California, Florida from
Mexico, Latin America, Cuba, Gaiety.
50.What problems are created by illegal
immigrants in the US?Crime; illegal immigration
holds down the pay of American workers: ultra-cheap laborers (illegal
immigrants) are unlikely to complain about their abysmal pay, lack of benefits
or unpleasant working conditions; illegal immigrants are not just underpaid;
they are very likely to suffer work-related disabilities which are not covered
by insurance. They often do not have a place to live. Since they usually do not
get any benefits, their care increasingly has become the responsibility of the
51.Give the English for "біженець; шукати політичного притулку; підданий іншої країни, що мешкає в
державі”. Refugee, asylum seeker,to seek asylum, alien (legal/illegal).
52. Comment on the expression
"the melting pot".
pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which
the ingredients in the pot (people of different cultures and religions) are
combined so as to lose their discrete identities and yield a final product of
uniform consistency and flavor, which is quite different from the original
The melting pot idea is most strongly associated with
the United States,
particularly in reference to "model" immigrant groups of the past.
Past generations of immigrants in America, it is argued by some,
became successful by working to shed their historic identities and adopt the
ways of their new country. The process of shedding one's native culture and
becoming absorbed into the ways of the "host" society is known as
pot vs. multiculturalism (metaphors - "a bowl of salad”, "pizza”).
53. Give the names of some ethnic
or national communities in the US.
Chinese, Jewish, Russian, Italian, etc
54.Is it possible to single out any specific
traits of character typical of Americans as a nation? What are they?
efficiency, time is money, individualism, self-reliance, loneliness,
conformity, the status-seekers..
55.When is North America
believed to have been visited by Europeans for the first time? Who were those
first visitors? Who was their leader?
Vikings –the first Europeans who came to the USA 1000 years ago (Leif Ericson –
leader).Traces of their visit – Newfoundland. But they
did not establish a permanent settlement and soon left the continent.
56.When was America discovered by Christopher
Columbus? What national holiday commemorates this event?
demand for Asian spices, textiles, and dyes spurred European navigators to
dream of shorter routes between East and West. Acting on behalf of the Spanish
crown, in 1492 the Italian navigator Christopher Columbus sailed west
from Europe and landed on one of the Bahama Islands in the Caribbean
Sea. Within 40 years, Spanish adventurers had carved out a huge
empire in Central and South America. Columbus
day - holiday commemorating Christopher Columbus's discovery of America, it is
celebrated on the Monday nearest to Oct. 12.
In recent years, the holiday has been rejected by many
people who view it as a celebration of conquest and genocide. In its place,
Indigenous Peoples Day is celebrated.
57. When was the first
British-American settlement founded in North America?
What was its name?
The first successful English colony was founded at Jamestown, Virginia,
in 1607. A few years later, English Puritans came to America to escape religious
persecution for their opposition to the Church of England.
First permanent British settlement in North America - New England. In New England
the Puritans hoped to build a "city upon a hill" -- an ideal
community. Ever since, Americans have viewed their country as a great experiment,
a worthy model for other nations to follow.
58.When did the first big group of British
protestant settlers arrive in North America?
What was the name of the ship they sailed on? What was the name of the colony
102p. In 1620, the Puritans founded Plymouth Colony in what later became Massachusetts.
59.What names can you use to refer to the first
British settlers? Pilgrims, the Pilgrim fathers,
60.What does the expression "Pilgrim
founders of Plymouth Colony. The name Pilgrim Fathers is given to those members
who made the first crossing on the Mayflower. They are considered to be the
fathers of the nation. Those people traveled a long distance to be able to
61.What holiday dates back to the first big
group of British protestant settlers in Norm America?
Pilgrims were unprepared for the starvation and sickness of a harsh New England winter and nearly half died before spring.
Yet, persevering in prayer, and assisted by helpful Indians, they reaped a
bountiful harvest the following summer. The grateful Pilgrims then declared a
three-day feast, starting on December 13, 1621, to thank God and to celebrate. Thanksgiving
day – 3rdThursday of November.
62. Why did the first big group of
British protestant settlers come to the New World?
wanted to escape from the religious persecution of Protestants in Catholic
England. The New World, although filled with
uncertainty and peril, offered both civil and religious liberty. The Puritans
believed that government should enforce God's morality, and they strictly
punished heretics, adulterers, drunks, and violators of the Sabbath. In spite
of their own quest for religious freedom, the Puritans practiced a form of
intolerant moralism.In 1636 an English clergyman named Roger Williams left
Massachusetts and founded the colony of Rhode Island, based on
the principles of religious freedom and separation of church and state, two
ideals that were later adopted by framers of the U.S. Constitution.
63. What event does the name
Tea Party" refer to? Бостонське
In May 1773, Prime Minister North
and the British parliament passed the Tea Act. The Tea Act allowed the British
East India Company to sell tea directly to the colonists, bypassing the
colonial wholesale merchants. This allowed the company to sell their tea
cheaper than the colonial merchants who were selling smuggled tea from Holland.
This act revived the colonial
issue of taxation without representation. The colonies once again demanded that
the British government remove the tax on tea. In addition, the dockworkers
began refusing to unload the tea from ships.
The Governor of Massachusetts demanded that the tea be
unloaded. He also demanded that the people pay the taxes and duty on tea.
the evening of December 16, 1773, a group of men calling themselves the
"Sons of Liberty" went to the Boston Harbor.
The men were dressed as Mohawk Indians. They boarded three British ships, the
Beaver, the Eleanor and the Dartmouth, and
dumped forty-five tons of tea into the Boston Harbor.
64.When was the Declaration of Independence signed? Who was its main author?
The Declaration of Independence is the document in
which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their
justifications for doing so. It was ratified by the Continental Congress on
July 4, 1776; this anniversary is celebrated as Independence Day in the United States.
The document is on display in the National Archives in Washington, D.C.
The independence of the American colonies was recognized by Great Britain
on September 3, 1783, by the Treaty of Paris.
On June 11, 1776, a committee
consisting of John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Robert R.
Livingston, and Roger Sherman, was formed to draft a suitable declaration to frame
this resolution. Jefferson did most of the writing, with input from the
committee. His original draft included a denunciation of the slave trade, which
was later edited out, as was a lengthy criticism of the British people and
parliament. His draft was presented to the Continental Congress on July 1,
65.What events preceded the War of Independence? How long
did the war last?
Throughout the 1760s and 1770s, relations between Great Britain
and thirteen of her North American colonies had become increasingly strained.
1770 – The Boston Massacre (Бостонское
кровопролитие) – a confrontation between the group of British soldiers and
colonists (5 people were killed). 1773- The Boston Tea Party.
Сconfrontation/battle broke out
in 1775 at Lexington and Concord marking the beginning of the
American Revolutionary War. Although there was little initial sentiment for
outright independence, the pamphlet Common Sense by Thomas Paine was able to
promote the belief that total independence was the only possible route for the
Реферат на тему: 228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка)