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228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка)

Для тих, хто вивчає American Studies (поглиблено) в КНУ Шевченка (Інститут Філології) а також всіх інших, хто готується до екзамену. 228 відповідей на питання з Американістики. Джерела - \r\nон-лайн енцикопедії, the Potrtait of the USA, конспекти лекцыъ Шевченко Н.Б.

1. What factors caused the changes that made American English different from
British English?

Will for self-identification, influence of other languages, distance between the countries

2. What differences are there in British and American English? Differences in grammar, pronunciation and spelling.

3. What differences in pronunciation are there in British and American English?

American English not do not have as much as rises and falls as in British English, voices have higher pitch, , they are nasalized, "r” is pronounced always, t/d a bit voiced, etc.

British English American English

Ary (stressed!) temporary

Ory territory, laboratory

Able amicable, hospitable, formidable

a er courage, nourish, flourish, current, hurry

e ei semi-, anti-, multi-

privacy, vitamins, either, neither, leisure

4. Comment on the term "Americanism" and give examples of Americanisms in
English.

-originate from America (are pointed in dictionaries if they have British variant)

-vocabulary units which can be used in all English-speaking countries.

CULTURAL COLORING!

Tomahawk, moccasin, wigwam, ranch, tornado, coyote;


Minister – secretary

Car – automobile

Secondary school – high school

Biscuits – cookies

Flat – apartment

Form – grade

Lift – elevator

Post – mail

Pavement – sidewalk

Lorry – truck

Tram – street-car

Petrol – gasoline

Wash up – do the dishes

Wash your hands – wash up


5. Comment on the differences between British and American grammar.

- Past Simple is used more often than Present Perfect (to introduce a recent happening; give new information; with just, already, yet)

- I’ve got= I have; Have you got?= Do you have?

- "shall” is never used in the first form singular

- shall/should is used asking for the instructions

- use of auxiliaries (you needn’t/ you don’t need; I suggest that you do it)

- government, team, family – singular

- in the street/on the street

- take a bath/have a bath; take a shower/have a shower

- at weekends/on weekends

- different to/different than

- write to somebody/write somebody

- to, in hospital/ to, in the hospital

- burnt, spoilt/burned, spoiled – some irregular Br. verbs are regular in Am. E.

- get, got, got/get, got, gotten

- travelling/traveling

6. Give examples of some borrowings from other languages made in America.

Indian: opossum, raccoon, skunk, caribou, moose

French: prairie, rapids

Spanish: lasso, cafeteria, rodeo, sombrero

German: semester, seminar, frankfurter

Dutch: cookie, Yankee, Santa Claus

African: Jazz, hippie

7. Describe the borders of the US.

The United States of America, also referred to as the United States, U.S.A., U.S., America, or the States, is a federal republic in central North America, stretching from the Atlantic in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. It shares land borders with Canada in the north and Mexico in the south, a marine border with Russia in the northwest, and has a collection of districts, territories, and possessions around the world.

or

The United States proper has land borders with Canada and Mexico, as well as several territorial water boundaries with Canada, Russia and The Bahamas. It is otherwise bounded by the Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

8. How many states are there in the United States? The country has fifty states and the district of Columbia, which have a level of local autonomy according to the system of federalism.

9. Which of the states is the biggest in area and which one is the smallest? Corresp. Alaska and Rhode Island.

10. Name as many states as you can without taking breath. See the att.

11. What regions are American states usually divided into?

P New England, made up of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.

P The Middle Atlantic, comprising New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland.

P The South, which runs from Virginia south to Florida and west as far as central Texas. This region also includes West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and parts of Missouri and Oklahoma.

P The Midwest, a broad collection of states sweeping westward from Ohio to Nebraska and including Michigan, Indiana, Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, Iowa, parts of Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Kansas, and eastern Colorado.

P The Southwest, made up of western Texas, portions of Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and the southern interior part of California.

P The West, comprising Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Utah, California, Nevada, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Hawaii.

12. What states are included into New England? Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island

13. What state is usually referred to as the "land of 10 000 lakes"? Minnesota.

14. What states are called the Gulf states and why? (штати Мексиканської затоки) Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas- they are washed by the Gulf of Mexico.

15. What is the name of the North-Eastern region of the US? New England

16. What are the most and the least densely populated states?

The most densely populated states are New Jersey (372/sq.km), Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, California, New York and Texas.

! Robust population growth continues to sweep the nation's Southern and Western states, according to estimates by the Census Bureau.

If the trend continues at its current pace, states in the Northeast and Midwest that have been population powerhouses since the 19th century will lose their dominance to Sun Belt states by 2010.

Least populated – Alaska, Wyoming, Nevada.

17. Give examples of the nicknames of the US states and the symbols that they have.

Kentucky - nickname: Bluegrass State, flower: Goldenrod, bird: Kentucky Cardinal.

Tennessee - nickname: Volunteer State, flower: Iris, bird: Mockingbird.

Alabama - nickname: The Heart of Dixie, The Cotton State, The Yellowhammer State, flower: Camellia, bird: Yellowhammer.

Mississippi - nickname: Magnolia State, flower: Flower or Bloom of the Magnolia or Evergreen Magnolia, bird: Mockingbird. +see the att.

18. What is the largest river in the US? The Mississippi (2320 miles (3733 km). The river begins as a 12-foot wide stream in Minnesota. Flowing due south, it is joined by two main tributaries, the Missouri River at St. Louis and the Ohio at Cairo, Illinois. Below Cairo, the Mississippi swells into a powerful waterway, often 4,500 feet across. It drains more than a million miles of land as it flows 2,348 miles south to empty into the Gulf of Mexico at New Orleans.

19. Give the names of the biggest and most important rivers in the US. The Mississippi, the Missouri, the Yukon, the Rio Grande, the Ohio, the Columbia, the St. Lawrence, the Arkansas, the Colorado.

20. What river does Washington, D.C. stand on? The Columbia River.

21. What rivers wash Manhattan in New York City? The East River, the Harlem River, and the Hudson River.

22. What are the two biggest mountain systems in the US? The Appalachian mountain, the Rocky Mountains.

23. What is the name of the mountain system which takes up the Western part of the
US territory? Rocky Mountains.

24. Give the names of the Great Lakes. Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario.

25. What are the biggest lakes in the US? Michigan, Iliamna, Okeechobee, Becharof, Red Lake.

26. Give the names of some well-known capes in the US. Cape Cod (New England), Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout (North Carolina), Cape Canaveral (Florida).

27. Give the English for: Скелясті гори, Ніагарський водоспад, Мексиканська
затока, Арканзас, Ілінойс. The Rocky Mountains, The Niagara Falls, The Gulf of Mexico, Arkansas, Illinois.

28. Give the names of as many National Parks in the US as you can. The Yellowstone Park (Wyoming), the Grand Canyon NP (Arizona), the Petrified Forest NP (Arizona), the Yosemite NP (California), the Sequoia NP (California), the Everglades NP (Florida), the Zion NP (Utah).

29. Say a few words about the climate in the US.

The climate varies along with the landscape, from tropical in Hawaii and southern Florida to tundra in Alaska and atop some of the highest mountains. Most of the North and East experience a temperate continental climate, with warm summers and cold winters. Most of the American South experiences a subtropical humid climate with mild winters and long, hot, humid summers. Rainfall decreases markedly from the humid forests of the Eastern Great Plains to the semiarid shortgrass prairies on the High Plains abutting the Rocky Mountains. Arid deserts, including the Mojave, extend through the lowlands and valleys of the American Southwest from westernmost Texas to California and northward throughout much of Nevada. Some parts of the American West, including San Francisco, California, have a Mediterranean climate. Rain forests line the windward mountains of the Pacific Northwest from Oregon to Alaska.

30. What branches of industry and agriculture are highly developed in the US?
Illustrate your answer with the names of regions and cities.

The country has rich mineral resources, with extensive gold, oil, coal, and uranium deposits. Successful farm industries rank the country among the top producers of, among others, corn, wheat, sugar, and tobacco. The U.S. manufacturing sector produces, among other things, cars, airplanes, and electronics. The largest industry is now service, which employs roughly three-quarters of U.S. residents.

Economic activity varies greatly from one part of the country to another, with many industries being largely dependent on a certain city or region; New York City is the center of the American financial, publishing, broadcasting, and advertising industries; Silicon Valley is the country’s primary location for high technology companies, while Los Angeles is the most important center for film production. The Midwest is known for its reliance on manufacturing and heavy industry, with Detroit serving as the center of the American automotive industry; the Great Plains are known as "the breadbasket of America” for their tremendous agricultural output, while Texas is largely associated with the oil industry; the Southeastern U.S. is a major hub for medical research, as well as many of the nation's textiles manufacturers.

31. What is the population of the US? 296,428,342 (according to the National Census Bureau)

32. What ethnic groups make up the population in the US? White people (Caucasians, 63%), Hispanics (Latinos, 12,5%), Black people (Afro-Americans, 12,3%), People of Asian origin (Asian Americans 3,6), American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts (Native born Americans, American Indians, came from Asia, Siberia to Alaska through the Bering’s strait (Берингов пролив) 20000 ago). Nomadic tribes (кочевые племена).

According to the 2000 census, the United States has 37 ethnic groups with at least one million people each.

33. How can the majority and minority groups be defined in the US?

In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. Minority only makes sense in the context of a unified society or group. This can be used to refer to people of a different language, nationality, religion, culture, lifestyle or any characteristic, provided these people are accepted as part of the referent group.

In recent decades the term minority has taken on a new meaning among the politically correct, being used to refer to a group with which they perceive to be worthy of special preferential treatment. For instance, while numerically women outnumber men in most societies, they can be said in politically correct terms to be a minority, given their claim of inferior treatment compared to men.

A majority is a sub-group that outnumbers non-members in any particular group, or, in the politically correct sense of the word, has traditionally higher social status, e.g. white male Protestants in the USA.

The majority of the 296 million people currently living in the United States descend from European immigrants who have arrived since the establishment of the first colonies. Major components of the European segment of the United States population are descended from immigrants from Germany (23 percent), Ireland (16 percent), England (13 percent), Scotland, The Netherlands and Italy (6 percent), with many immigrants also coming from Scandinavian or Slavic countries. Other significant immigrant populations came from eastern and southern Europe and French Canada; few immigrants came directly from France.

Likewise, while there were few immigrants directly from Spain, Hispanics from Mexico and South and Central America are considered the largest minority group in the country. Other ethnic minority groups: African Americans (many of whom are descendants of the enslaved Africans brought to the U.S. between the 1620s and 1807),Asian American population (most of whom are concentrated on the West Coast), the aboriginal population of Native Americans, such as American Indians and Inuit.

34. Comment on the politically correct use of the vocabulary when speaking about ethnicity and race in the US.

Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. The term most often appears in the form politically correct or PC, and is generally used mockingly or disparagingly. One stated aim of politically correct language is to prevent the exclusion or the offending of people because of their differences or handicaps.

or

When used this way, it often targets advocates of certain forms of identity politics, including gay rights, feminism, multiculturalism and the disability rights movement. The use of "gender-neutral" terms to describe occupations ("fire-fighter" instead of "fireman," "chairperson" instead of "chairman," etc.), for example, might be referrred to as "political correctness" to characterize its proponents as overly sensitive or even coercive.

In the United States over the course of one hundred years, blacks became Negroes, then became blacks again, then became Afro-Americans, then became African-Americans (the current term). In the meantime, the term "colored" came into and went out of usage, while the related term "people of color" came into usage later on.

Eskimo, a word that has long been viewed as pejorative by the people it refers to, has increasingly been replaced by more specific terms (for example, Inuit, Yupik, and Aleut).

Indians became Native Americans or Indigenous People in the United States. American Indian and Amerindian are also gaining popularity. Similarly, they became known in Canada as First Nations or aboriginal peoples.

Caucasian (used in place of White). People of Color (used to describe people of certain ethnicities, including Whites of Hispanic origin).

35. What designations are there for different generation groups in the US?

Woodstock generation – in 1969 there was a huge rock-music festival in the field which could be attended by a lot of people (hippies)

Baby Boomers – people who were born during 1945-1964 – the period of increased birthrate

Xers – the nowadays population

36. What people are called "baby-boomers"? Baby boomers –people who were born during the period of increased burth rate – 1945-64. As is often the case with a large war, the elation of victory and large numbers of returning males to their country triggered a baby boom after the end of World War II in many countries around the globe, notably those of Europe, Asia, North America and Australasia.

37. Comment on the word "Wasp".

38. WASP - a white person of Anglo-Saxon ancestry who belongs to a Protestant denomination.

WASP is an acronym which stands for White Anglo-Saxon Protestant. The term is generally considered to have been coined by E. Digby Baltzell as a convenient shorthand in his 1964 book The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy & Caste in America. (An E. B. Palmore is also credited with defining it in a 1962 journal article.)

It should be noted that the term is tautological, as all Anglo-Saxons, by definition, are "white". Also, strictly speaking, it does not apply to many, perhaps even most people called "WASPs", as they are not descended from Angles, Saxons, or members of closely-related tribes.

The term, as used in the United States, generally describes a class of wealthy whites with ties to colonial America, who often have a certain amount of social standing and may or may not be part of the Establishment. The Northern European denominations of Christianity probably encompassed by the WASP idea include Episcopal (Anglican), Presbyterian, Lutheran, Methodist, Congregationalist (Puritan), Dutch Reformed, Quaker, Northern Baptist and Southern Baptist, et al.

In contemporary use, the term is usually used to denote wealthier, educated Protestants, often in the context of high society, prep school, or Ivy League-level college educations. The term, when used this way, is most often applied to the New England and the Northeast. Also: preppy.

Preppy is a term in the popular vocabulary, traditionally used to describe the characteristics of patrician, White, Anglo-Saxon Protestants (usually with some personal or familial connection to New England; e.g. WASP) who attend or attended major private, secondary preparatory schools. These characteristics include particular subcultural speech, vocabulary, accent, dress, mannerisms, etiquette, and general way of being.

38. Name some of the biggest waves of immigration to the US.

1604,1607 Europe (France, England, Holland, Sweden, Germany) –people seeking wealth, land and freedom – a better life.

1620 England –pilgrims in search of religious freedom.

1775-1783 Holland, Germany, France, Switzerland, Spain, Scotland.

1619-1808 Africa – people brought unwillingly as slaves.

1840-1860 Europe – famine, poor crops, rising populations, political unrest.

1845-1850 Ireland –famine, poor potato crops.

1861-1865 Germany – the federal government encouraged immigration by offering grants of land to those who would serve as troops in the armies of the North.

1880’s-1925 Italy, Greece + Eastern Europe (Jews who suffered from fierce pogroms – massacres).

After 1945 Europe– refugees who were uprooted by the horrors of war.

1956-1969 Hungary, Czech Republic – after the Soviet Unio crushed the attempt to establish a non-communist government.

1959 Cuba – after Fidel Castro took control of Cuba.

1975-1980s Cuba, Southeast Asia, Vietnam, Cambodia, The Lao People’s Democratic Republic – political refugees + economical refugees.

1990s Ireland, Canada, Poland, Indonesia – skilled workers and professionals.

1990s Bangladesh, Pakistan, Peru, Egypt, Tobago – "diversity visas”.

1990s – The Soviet Union, Vietnam, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan etc - refugees, fear of persecution.

39. What were the reasons of a big immigration wave from Ireland in the middle of the 1911'century?

1845-1850 Ireland –famine, poor potato crops.

40. What attracted many Germans who came to the US during the Civil War?

1861-1865 Germany – the federal government encouraged immigration by offering grants of land to those who would serve as troops in the armies of the North.

41. When and why did the massive Jewish immigration to the US begin?

1880’s-1925 Eastern Europe -Jews who suffered from fierce pogroms (massacres).

42. Have there been any examples of unwilling immigration to the US?

1619-1808 Africa –500000 people were brought to the colonies unwillingly as slaves. 1808- importing slaves became a crime.

43. Give examples of the laws passed by the US Congress to limit the number of immigrants.

1882 – the US government banned most Chinese immigration. Other Asians were refused to entry as well.

1924 The Reed-Johnson immigration act (set limits on how many people from each foreign country would be permitted to immigrate.)

1965 – a new law signed by President Johnson ended the old system of immigration. No more consideration of peoples’ country of origin, the USA has accepted immigrants strictly on the basis of who applies firs within overall annual limits.

44. Where is the museum of immigration to the US situated? Ellis Island in New York Harbor, New York, was the gateway to a new life in the USA for over 12 million immigrants between the years 1892 and 1924. A former reception centre for immigrants during the immigration waves between 1892 and 1943 (12 million people passed through it from 1892 to 1924), it was later used (until 1954) as a detention centre for nonresidents without documentation, or for those who were being deported. Ellis Island is now a national historic site (1964) and contains the Museum of Immigration (1989).

45. What were the reasons why people at different times left their home countries for America? Search of better life, political and religious persecution, new lands, etc

46. What have the immigrants always been seeking in the US? Wealth, land and freedom – a better life.

47. What was the port of entry for the immigrants in the past? 1892 –the government opened a special port of entry in New York harbor, Ellis Island.

48. What do you know about the Statue of Liberty?

The Statue of Liberty National Monument officially celebrated her 100th birthday on October 28, 1986. The people of France gave the Statue to the people of the United States over one hundred years ago in recognition of the friendship established during the American Revolution. Over the years, the Statue of Liberty has grown to include freedom and democracy as well as this international friendship. Located on 12-acre Liberty Island in New York Harbor.

Sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi was commissioned to design a sculpture with the year 1876 in mind for completion, to commemorate the centennial of the American Declaration of Independence.

The Statue of Liberty began lightning the way for new arrivals just at a time when native-born Americans began worrying that the US was being overrun by immigrants.

49. What American states suffer most of all from illegal immigration? US-Mexican border

Texas, California, Florida from Mexico, Latin America, Cuba, Gaiety.

50. What problems are created by illegal immigrants in the US? Crime; illegal immigration holds down the pay of American workers: ultra-cheap laborers (illegal immigrants) are unlikely to complain about their abysmal pay, lack of benefits or unpleasant working conditions; illegal immigrants are not just underpaid; they are very likely to suffer work-related disabilities which are not covered by insurance. They often do not have a place to live. Since they usually do not get any benefits, their care increasingly has become the responsibility of the state government.

51. Give the English for "біженець; шукати політичного притулку; підданий іншої країни, що мешкає в державі”. Refugee, asylum seeker, to seek asylum, alien (legal/illegal).

52. Comment on the expression "the melting pot".

The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (people of different cultures and religions) are combined so as to lose their discrete identities and yield a final product of uniform consistency and flavor, which is quite different from the original inputs.

The melting pot idea is most strongly associated with the United States, particularly in reference to "model" immigrant groups of the past. Past generations of immigrants in America, it is argued by some, became successful by working to shed their historic identities and adopt the ways of their new country. The process of shedding one's native culture and becoming absorbed into the ways of the "host" society is known as assimilation.

Melting pot vs. multiculturalism (metaphors - "a bowl of salad”, "pizza”).

53. Give the names of some ethnic or national communities in the US. Chinese, Jewish, Russian, Italian, etc

54. Is it possible to single out any specific traits of character typical of Americans as a nation? What are they?

Key terms: efficiency, time is money, individualism, self-reliance, loneliness, conformity, the status-seekers..

55. When is North America believed to have been visited by Europeans for the first time? Who were those first visitors? Who was their leader?

Icelandic Vikings –the first Europeans who came to the USA 1000 years ago (Leif Ericson – leader). Traces of their visit – Newfoundland. But they did not establish a permanent settlement and soon left the continent.

56. When was America discovered by Christopher Columbus? What national holiday commemorates this event?

The demand for Asian spices, textiles, and dyes spurred European navigators to dream of shorter routes between East and West. Acting on behalf of the Spanish crown, in 1492 the Italian navigator Christopher Columbus sailed west from Europe and landed on one of the Bahama Islands in the Caribbean Sea. Within 40 years, Spanish adventurers had carved out a huge empire in Central and South America. Columbus day - holiday commemorating Christopher Columbus's discovery of America, it is celebrated on the Monday nearest to Oct. 12.

In recent years, the holiday has been rejected by many people who view it as a celebration of conquest and genocide. In its place, Indigenous Peoples Day is celebrated.

57. When was the first British-American settlement founded in North America? What was its name?

The first successful English colony was founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. A few years later, English Puritans came to America to escape religious persecution for their opposition to the Church of England.

First permanent British settlement in North America - New England. In New England the Puritans hoped to build a "city upon a hill" -- an ideal community. Ever since, Americans have viewed their country as a great experiment, a worthy model for other nations to follow.

58. When did the first big group of British protestant settlers arrive in North America? What was the name of the ship they sailed on? What was the name of the colony they founded?

"Mayflower”, 102p. In 1620, the Puritans founded Plymouth Colony in what later became Massachusetts.

59. What names can you use to refer to the first British settlers? Pilgrims, the Pilgrim fathers, Puritans.

60. What does the expression "Pilgrim Fathers" mean?

The founders of Plymouth Colony. The name Pilgrim Fathers is given to those members who made the first crossing on the Mayflower. They are considered to be the fathers of the nation. Those people traveled a long distance to be able to worship.

61. What holiday dates back to the first big group of British protestant settlers in Norm America?

The Pilgrims were unprepared for the starvation and sickness of a harsh New England winter and nearly half died before spring. Yet, persevering in prayer, and assisted by helpful Indians, they reaped a bountiful harvest the following summer. The grateful Pilgrims then declared a three-day feast, starting on December 13, 1621, to thank God and to celebrate. Thanksgiving day – 3rd Thursday of November.

62. Why did the first big group of British protestant settlers come to the New World?

They wanted to escape from the religious persecution of Protestants in Catholic England. The New World, although filled with uncertainty and peril, offered both civil and religious liberty. The Puritans believed that government should enforce God's morality, and they strictly punished heretics, adulterers, drunks, and violators of the Sabbath. In spite of their own quest for religious freedom, the Puritans practiced a form of intolerant moralism. In 1636 an English clergyman named Roger Williams left Massachusetts and founded the colony of Rhode Island, based on the principles of religious freedom and separation of church and state, two ideals that were later adopted by framers of the U.S. Constitution.

63. What event does the name "Boston Tea Party" refer to? Бостонське чаювання.

In May 1773, Prime Minister North and the British parliament passed the Tea Act. The Tea Act allowed the British East India Company to sell tea directly to the colonists, bypassing the colonial wholesale merchants. This allowed the company to sell their tea cheaper than the colonial merchants who were selling smuggled tea from Holland.

This act revived the colonial issue of taxation without representation. The colonies once again demanded that the British government remove the tax on tea. In addition, the dockworkers began refusing to unload the tea from ships.

The Governor of Massachusetts demanded that the tea be unloaded. He also demanded that the people pay the taxes and duty on tea.

On the evening of December 16, 1773, a group of men calling themselves the "Sons of Liberty" went to the Boston Harbor. The men were dressed as Mohawk Indians. They boarded three British ships, the Beaver, the Eleanor and the Dartmouth, and dumped forty-five tons of tea into the Boston Harbor.

64. When was the Declaration of Independence signed? Who was its main author?

The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. It was ratified by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776; this anniversary is celebrated as Independence Day in the United States. The document is on display in the National Archives in Washington, D.C. The independence of the American colonies was recognized by Great Britain on September 3, 1783, by the Treaty of Paris.

On June 11, 1776, a committee consisting of John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Robert R. Livingston, and Roger Sherman, was formed to draft a suitable declaration to frame this resolution. Jefferson did most of the writing, with input from the committee. His original draft included a denunciation of the slave trade, which was later edited out, as was a lengthy criticism of the British people and parliament. His draft was presented to the Continental Congress on July 1, 1776.

65. What events preceded the War of Independence? How long did the war last?

Throughout the 1760s and 1770s, relations between Great Britain and thirteen of her North American colonies had become increasingly strained. 1770 – The Boston Massacre (Бостонское кровопролитие) – a confrontation between the group of British soldiers and colonists (5 people were killed). 1773- The Boston Tea Party.

Сconfrontation/battle broke out in 1775 at Lexington and Concord marking the beginning of the American Revolutionary War. Although there was little initial sentiment for outright independence, the pamphlet Common Sense by Thomas Paine was able to promote the belief that total independence was the only possible route for the colonies.




Реферат на тему: 228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка)


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